Saint Winefride’s Well is situated in Holywell, Flintshire in Wales and is named after a 7th-century local Welsh woman named Gwenffrewi in Welsh or Winefred, or Winefride in English. Today it is classed as a grade l listed building and is a major place of pilgrimage for Catholics though all faiths are welcome as are people who have no religion. The market town of Holywell is named after Saint Winefride’s Well which is an ancient place of pilgrimage and there is a remarkable legend that tells the story of how this came to be
Who was Saint Winefride?
Welsh legend tells that Winefride was the daughter of Tyfid ap Eiludd who was the lord of Tegeingl, a cantref, or division of land, in north-east Wales which later became part of the county of Flintshire. Her mother’s name was Wenlo and was the sister of Saint Beuno who had associations with the Welsh kings of South Wales. Winefride was thought to have a brother named Owain. According to legend, her family were distant descendants of Vortigern, a warlord of 5th century Britain.
The legend of St Winefride is pieced together from information from historical documents and local legend and tradition. A picture emerges of Winefride at about 15 years old as being a gifted intellectual with a studious nature who was dedicated entirely to the Christian Church and way of life. Her uncle was St. Beuno, an abbot, and her mentor. By all accounts, she appeared to a highly attractive and charming girl with a strong personality who was preparing to dedicate herself to a life of austerity and devotion to the church at an early age with her parent’s consent. She stayed with Beuno at his church and flourished in her chosen vocation under his mentorship and teaching.
The legend of St. Winefride
As an attractive girl, she naturally had her share of suitors. When one of the neighboring princes by the name of Caradoc heard about her he decided he would ask her for her hand in marriage. When Caradoc arrived with his proposition Winefride was alone as her parents had left early to attend the church where Beuno was celebrating Mass. Although she told him that she was dedicating her life to the church, he begged and pleaded for her hand in marriage and became angry at her polite but firm rebuttals and he began threatening her. Winefride became frightened and ran to the church where the Mass was being held hoping she would be safe with her parents and uncle there.
It was not to be. The rejected and angry Caradoc followed and quickly caught up with her on sloping ground and drawing his sword cut her head off. Her head rolled down the slope and eventually came to rest. As soon as it stopped rolling a spring of water bubbled up out of the ground.
On hearing of the terrible murder as he was giving Mass, Beuno left the church and went to the newly formed spring where her head still lay beside it. Gently and carefully picking her head up he took it back to her body and kneeling, placed it upon her shoulders and covered the dead Winefride with his cloak. He then returned to the church where he prayed to God for her and calmly finished the Mass. After Mass, he returned to her body and once again kneeling beside her prayed to God and then uncovered her body. Legend says that Winefride sat up as if she had been in deep sleep, her head firmly on her shoulders with only a thin white scar circling around her throat and neck that showed the signs of her decapitation.
Beuno then turned to Caradoc, who had remained nearby, and called upon God to punish him and according to one legend he was struck dead and swallowed by the ground. However, some historians think that he was killed by Winefride’s brother Owain out of vengeance but whatever happened to Caradoc, Winefride was alive again. After her resurrection Winefride dedicated herself to God and his church, living in poverty and virginity. She eventually became the abbess of a convent and chapel was eventually constructed over the spring.
Saint Winefride’s Well
There is a tradition that Beuno left Holywell to live in Caernarvon and then went to Ireland. Before he did so he seated himself upon a stone that now rests in the outer pool declaring that,
“whosoever on that spot should thrice ask for a benefit from God in the name of St. Winefride would obtain the grace he asked if it was for the good of his soul.” (1)
Winefride was said to have promised her uncle that as long as she lived at Holywell every year she would send him a token of her love. Every year she would make him a sleeveless outer garment called a chasuble that Catholic priests wore when celebrating mass, or some other similar gift made from her own hand. This would be placed in the spring and the stream was said to carry the present to him wherever he was in the world.
When Beuno died about eight years later, Winefride, perhaps fearing the encroaching Saxons, sought a new refuge and with her companions moved to Gwytherin not far from the source of the River Elwy and joined a community of nuns established there. She lived there as a nun and an acknowledged saint on earth. She eventually became abbess and passed away on 3rd of November between 650 to 660. Her grave became a place of pilgrimage and between 1136 to 1138 her remains were taken to Shrewsbury Abbey and translated.
Winefride became widely revered and Saint Winefride’s Well, at Holywell, became a popular place of pilgrimage. It was said to have healing powers and called the Welsh Lourdes and is the only place in Britain that has an unbroken record of pilgrimage for over 1300 years. Today the well is still open most days of the year and people still go there to bathe and there are daily and pilgrims services and Mass on Sundays. Further information can be found on the website of St. Winfride’s Well.
© 17/08/2016 zteve t evans
References and Attributions
Copyright August the 17th, 2016 zteve t evans
- St Winefride’s Well: Home
- (1) Chandlery, Peter. “St. Winefride.” The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 14 May 2013
- St Winefride’s Well – Wikipedia
- St Winifred’s Well – The Castles of Wales
- St Winefride’s – BBC News
- Saint Winifred of Holywell
- File:Saint Winifred – stained glass windos.png From Wikimedia Commons – St. Winefride’s Well, Holywell, Flintshire, UK. Stained glass window showing Saint Winefride. – Copy94 – CC BY-SA 3.0
- File:St Winefride’s Well and Chapel, Holywell – geograph.org.uk – 563437.jpg From Wikimedia Commons – St Winefride’s Well and Chapel, Holywell – Author: Tom Pennington – CC BY-SA 2.0