Winter Folklore: Traditions and Customs of the Cailleach Bheur

Gustave Doré [Public domain]

In Scottish, Irish, Manx and Gaelic mythology the goddess of winter is known as the the Cailleach, Beira or the Cailleach Bheur, which means old woman or hag. In Celtic mythology she had a similar role to Jörð in Norse mythology  and Gaia, in Greek mythology.

Donald Alexander Mackenzie

The Scottish folklorist Donald Alexander Mackenzie (1873 – 1936) wrote frequently on the subjects of mythology, anthropology and religion and developed a theory that there was a matriarchal society spread across Europe in Neolithic times.  In his book,  Myths of Crete and Pre-Hellenic Europe (1917), he argues that these early societies were gynocentric and matriarchal venerating goddesses above gods but during the Bronze Age a patriarchal society evolved supplanting it.  Mackenzie called the Cailleach Bheur by the name of Beira, Queen of Winter.  

He saw her as a giantess with  a single eye who had her mountain throne on Ben Nevis, Scotland’s highest mountain and the highest in the British Isles.  According to him she had white hair, dark blue skin, and rust-colored teeth. She had a magic hammer that she used to create the mountains and valleys  of Scotland.  Loch Ness was created when she changed a careless maid named Nessa into a river which then formed the loch.  Each year her rule would come to an end when the longest night of the year arrived when she would seek out the Well of Youth and drink its waters which made her grow younger by the day. 

As the Cailleach

In Scottish folklore and mythology, as the Cailleach she was believed to have created many of the mountains and hills.  She carried a wicker basket containing rocks and as she strode across the land at such a pace many of these rocks accidently fell out creating hills and mountains as she went. Sometimes she was said to have created the mountains on purpose and carried a hammer which she used to shape the hills and valleys.   She opposed Spring and herded deer and when she strikes the ground with her staff the ground freezes. 

The Cailleach and Brigid

Sometimes she is seen with the goddess Brigid in partnership or operating as two faces or aspects of one goddess.  They ruled the winter and spring months between November 1st or Samhain to May 1st or Beltane. Brigid rules from Beltane through summer and autumn  to Samhain.

In some traditions the Cailleach turns to stone on Beltane and reverts to her human form on Samhain to rule the winter and spring months. However, this is not straightforward,  in some traditions the transfer of jurisdiction between the two goddesses and winter to spring can be celebrated any time between Là Fhèill Brigid or February 1st, Latha na Cailliche or March 25th and Beltane or May 1st.  Festivals named after either of the two goddesses are held in between these dates.

Saint Brigid’s Day

According to tradition the Imobolc, or the 1st of February or  Là Fhèill Brigid is the day the Cailleach gathers her firewood for winter.  If she is planning a long winter she will make that day sunny and bright to help her find plenty of fuel to last her through the cold days of winter.  Therefore with this legend in mind people are pleased if the weather on February 1st is wet and dismal as the winter will be short. A tradition on the Isle of Man  where she is called Caillagh ny Groamagh, says that on St. Bride’s day she has been seen to take the form of a giant bird that flies around collecting sticks in its beak.

The Whirlpool of Corryvreckan

Another tradition from the west coast of Scotland tells how the Cailleach by washing her great plaid, which can be a kind of kilt, or sometimes a large shawl, in the waters of the Gulf of Corryvreckan causes the whirlpool in the gulf and brings in winter.  This also causes a storm that can be heard twenty miles away and lasts for three days.  When she is finished her plaid is clean and white and covers the land as snow. 

Harvest Traditions

There was an old custom in Ireland and Scotland where the farmer who was first to finish harvesting his crop of grain made a corn dolly that represent the Cailleach from the last sheaf that he cut.  This would be thrown into the field of one of his neighbors who had yet to finish bringing in his harvest.  If the farmer finished before his other neighbors this was passed to one of them. This was passed on until it at last came into the hands of the last unfortunate farmer to finish who it was implied had the misfortune to have to take care of the corn dolly for the following year. In doing so he was obliged to feed and house the Cailleach, the hag of winter, until summer returned.  This gave all of the farmers the encouragement and motivation to get their harvest in quickly.

© 06/12/2019 zteve t evans

References, Attribution and Further Reading

Copyright December 6th, 2019 zteve t evans

11 thoughts on “Winter Folklore: Traditions and Customs of the Cailleach Bheur

  1. Love it, Zteve! So, I learned tons of new stuff reading this, as I usually do–including, unless I’m misreading it (please let me know if I did), that St. Brigid’s day is also known as St. Bride’s. Is that a kind of linguistic elide or is that more like slang or something completely different as the Monty Python show would say [just curious; you don’t have to answer since it’s off on a tangent]?

    Once again, it’s fascinating to see how different peoples explain natural landscapes and phenomena, with parallels across world cultures.

    Finally, do you like reblogs or find them helpful, Zteve, or are they impolite? [I can handle the truth, but I’m not in touch with WordPress decorum anymore. Thanks!]

    • Hi Leigh, First, Brigid was a Celtic/Gaelic goddess and there are various regional versions of how her name is spelt. There was also a Saint Brigid who came after and shares her feast day of 1st Feb or the pagan festival of Imbolc, with the goddess. Some people think they are one and the same. Another name used in Scotland for Brigid is Bride and the Cailleach is sometimes Beira, All very confusing! I have no objection to anyone reblogging my work and take it as a complement. I have never reblogged anyone else’s and I don’t know why, perhaps I should. I am often asked if my work can be used for various projects and even had some ask if I objected if they used a piece for a choral work! Another wanted to translate an article into Dutch and I get all sorts of strange requests. As long as people credit me as they would like to be credited themselves then I have no objection what people use. Thanks for commenting, appreciated!

    • Hi Zteve, I am writing a book about the history and culture of a lost Iberian tribe called the Vettones. They inhabited a region of the interior of what is now Portugal, this region is called Beira. There is no translation given for this word, and I have heard it claimed that this was a Celtic word shared with Ireland and Scotland and the Celtic parts of Britain. It is a fact that the word Beira appears in the most ancient maps of Iberia, and that the Portuguese pronunciation quite closely resembles what I imagine the Scottish Bheura to sound like. As there was no written form in ancient times, there can be no doubt as to this being the same Celtic (or proto-celtic) word. I appreciate the information in your interesting blog. Iberia is, and always has been, feminine with regard to the divinities of the ancient peoples, and this includes the Phoenicians as well as the Celtic tribes.
      Tom G Hamilton

  2. Pingback: Via Under the influence!-Winter Folklore: Traditions and Customs of the Cailleach Bheur – Fang and Saucer

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