Petrification Myths: The Curse of Yonder Mountain

This is a retelling of a Spanish  fairy tale from Catalonia called The Water of Life that tells how a brave and plucky girl saves her three brothers after they have been turned to stone by a magical spell.  A version appeared in in Cuentos Populars Catalans (1885) a collection of D. Francisco de Sales Maspons y Labrós and was included by Andrew Lang in The Pink Fairy Book (1897).

The Dream Palace

The story begins in a small cottage there lived together three brothers and one sister. They all loved each other dearly and were very happy together but they were all dreamers spending much of their time daydreaming from dawn to dusk.  Then one day the eldest brother suddenly jumped up and said to the others, “Perhaps if we all work hard we can make some money and become rich enough to build a palace for us all to live in.” Both his younger brothers and his sister all jumped up and agreed saying, “Yes, that is a wonderful dream.  That is what we will!”

And indeed they did work hard and they made lots of money and grew very rich and they built themselves a beautiful palace in which they lived happily together.  The palace was a wonder and many people traveled from miles around to have look and see. Everyone agreed it indeed was most beautiful and none could find any faults at all with it.

The Old Woman

Then an old woman came to have a look around with the other sightseers.  While everyone was saying how splendid and wonderful the palace was she suddenly declared in a loud voice, “It is a most wonderful palace, but there is something that it lacks!”

“And what may that be?” asked the eldest brother perplexed and a little hurt.

“Why it needs a church, of course!” she replied in answer.

When the three brothers and their sister heard this they all set about with great energy working hard and earning more money which they used to build a church that was as big and splendid as the palace.  When they had finished people came from miles around to see the wonderful palace and the splendid church with their beautiful gardens and wide spacious halls.   Everyone agreed both buildings were the most magnificent they had ever seen.

The Old Man

Then, one day an old man who was visiting and looking around suddenly spoke up saying, “Well, of course both buildings are very beautiful and splendid but it is still lacking.”

“And what is it lacking?” asked the three brothers and their sister together.

“Why it lacks three treasures; a jug full of the water of life, the scent of the flowers from the tree of beauty and the talking bird,” replied the old man.

“And where can we find these three treasures?” they asked him earnestly.

The old man turned and pointed and said,  “Go to Yonder Mountain that is beyond the horizon and you will find what you seek there, but beware of the curse!”   This last alarmed the sister who demanded to know what the curse was.   The old man only smiled, bowed politely, said farewell and began walking home.   Looking back over his shoulder he said, “Mind the curse!”

“Right, I will go to the  Yonder Mountain and bring back the water of life, a flowering branch from the tree of beauty that we can plant and the talking bird,” said the eldest brother.  At this his sister froze and a darkness came into her mind and she looked inside herself for a moment and then said,   “How shall we ever know if you suffer some evil?”  

“Well, I had not thought about that, but you are right,” he replied.

So the three brothers and their sister followed the old man to his home and their sister said to him, “My eldest brother wants to go to Yonder Mountain to bring back the water of life,  a flowering branch from the tree of beauty and the talking bird, to complete the perfection of our palace.  What is the curse you talk of and you tell us how we will know if something evil happens to him?”

The old man took out a knife and gave it to them saying,  “I do not know what the curse is I have never been there but there, but I will give you this.  You must keep this very carefully and when you see the blade is clear then all is good.  Now listen, if you see the blade has turned to a blood red then that is the sign that evil has taken him.”

The Eldest Brother

The brothers and their sister thanked him and promised to keep it safe.  The eldest brother said his goodbyes and set off on his journey Yonder Mountain where he hoped to find all the treasures that their palace lacked.   He walked for many, many days and still the mountain did not seem to be any nearer.   As he was walking along he met a giant and stopped and said, “Please can you tell how much further Yonder Mountain is?”

The giant looked at him sternly and said, “And may I ask why you would want to go all the way their?”

“Why I am seeking the water of life, a branch from the tree of beauty and the talking bird,” replied the eldest.

The giant looked down at him and with all seriousness said,

“Many folk have passed this way seeking those precious treasures and not one has ever returned.  If you want to find them and bring them back you must listen to my words and obey them.  This path, though straight and narrow, will take you all the way to the top of the mountain.  When you arrive at the bottom of the mountain the path will begin to climb upwards and you must continue on and you will pass through stony ground.  As you walk up the path you will see many large stones and boulders all along the way on both sides.  The further you go the more there will be.   You must carry on walking but as you go you will think you hear, laughing, giggling and sniggering coming from all around you.  The further you go the louder and more intense the laughter will become.  It is the stones that are mocking you, but you must not heed them at all.  You must concentrate on walking straight ahead until you reach the top.  If you pay the slightest bit of attention to them, if you heed them at all, you, yourself will become one of them.”

So the eldest thanked the giant for his advice and continued along the path.  He walked many, many, miles before he at last reached the bottom of the mountain.   Following the path up the slopes he began to notice many large stones and boulders strewn all along the way either side of the path.  Nevertheless, he continued along his way and every so often he thought he heard someone snigger, or giggle behind him.  Remembering what the giant had told him he kept his eyes to the path in front and continued along it.  The further he got the louder the giggling and snickering became until it became an uproar of laughter.  Now feeling frightened he stooped to pick up a stone and as he turned to throw it he experienced his arm suddenly stiffen and his body turn completely rigid as he became one of the laughing, giggling stones.

Faraway back at the palace his sister was pacing up and down worrying about her brother and hoping he was on his way home.  Suddenly a terrible feeling of dread came over her and a darkness filled her mind and for a second she froze.  Recovering herself, she quickly she went to the knife and to her horror saw the blade had turned blood red and she cried out calling her brothers to her.  They clustered around and seeing the blade knew something evil had happened to their brother.  The next eldest then stepped forward resolutely and said,  “It is my duty to go an find our brother and bring him back if I can, along with the three treasures!”  

The Next Eldest Brother

Although his sister protested he left home and walked along the same path his brother had taken heading for the mountain.  He walked for many, many days but the mountain did not appear to be any nearer.  At last he met a giant and he asked him if he had seen his brother and told him of his quest.

“Yes, I have seen him pass this way.  He went along the path to Yonder Mountain but I have not seen him return.  I am afraid he must have got caught in the spell,”  replied the giant and explained about the curse that lay along the mountain path.

“If that is so, what is there that I can do to release him from the spell and bring back the water of life, a branch from the tree of beauty and the talking bird?”  asked the second eldest.

The giant looked down at him sternly and then said,

This path will take you all the way to the top of the mountain.  When you arrive at the bottom of the mountain the path will begin to climb upwards and you must continue on.  As you walk you pass through stony ground and will see many large stones and boulders all along the way on both sides.  The further you go the more there will be.   You must carry on walking but as you go you will think you hear, laughing, giggling and sniggering coming from all around you.  The further you go the louder and more intense the laughter will become.  It is the stones that are mocking you but you must not heed them at all.  You must concentrate on walking straight ahead until you reach the top. Do not turn, do not look, do not listen!  If you pay the slightest bit of attention to them, if you heed them at all, you, yourself will become one of them.  If you do not heed them you will reach the top and attain your heart’s desire.”

Thanking the giant for his advice the second eldest brother set out along the path to the mountain.   He walked for many, many miles until he came to the foot of the mountain.  He looked along the path and he saw it winding upwards around the mountain so he followed on.  As he followed the path upwards he noticed there were many large stones and boulders strewn on both sides of the path, but continued on his way.  Every now and then he thought he heard a snigger and someone giggling but he set his mind on his task and carried on trying to ignore it.  The further he went the louder the giggling became and soon all around him the  stones rang with raucous laughter so loud he could barely stand it but he heeded what the giant said and carried on.  As he passed the place where his brother had reached he thought he heard his voice mixed in with all the giggling and chuckling and he turned to see if he was there and instantly became one of the stones.

As this happened his sister had been pacing up and down in the palace with a growing feeling of dread and her mind filled with darkness and for a second she froze.  Then taking back control of herself she ran to the knife to see what the blade told her.  To her shock and horror it appeared blood red and she called out to her remaining brother who ran to see what was the matter.   When he saw the blood red blade he said, “I must go and find my brothers and bring back the treasures!”

The Youngest Brother

His sister protested many times but he would not be held back  and leaving his her alone he started out and walked for many, many days towards Yonder Mountain which never seemed to get any nearer.  Along the way he met a giant and stopped to ask him if he had seen anything of his brothers and told him of the quest for the treasures.

“Yes, I have seen them pass by and they have never yet returned.  I fear the spell of the mountain has taken them!” the giant told him.

“How can I set them free and bring back the water of life, a branch from the tree of beauty and the talking bird?” asked the youngest brother.

The giant looked down sternly and said,

This path will take you all the way to the top of the mountain.  When you arrive at the bottom of the mountain the path will begin to climb upwards and you must continue on.  As you walk you will pass through stony ground and will see many large stones and boulders all along the way on both sides.  The further you go the more there will be. You must carry on walking but as you go you will think you hear, laughing, giggling and sniggering coming from all around you.  The further you go the louder and more intense the laughter will become.  It is the stones that are mocking you but you must not heed them at all.  You must concentrate on walking straight ahead until you reach the top. Do not turn, do not look, do not listen!  If you pay the slightest bit of attention to them, if you heed them at all, you, yourself will become one of them.  If you do not heed them you will reach the top and find your heart’s desire.”

So the youngest brother thanked the giant for his advice and continued along the path until he reached the foot of the mountain.  He looked up the steep winding way and saw lots of large stones and boulders strewn either side of the path.  Remembering the giant’s warning he walked steadfastly up the path.   The further he walked the more stones he saw and as he walked he thought he heard whispering and then sniggering and giggling. Ignoring the sounds he walked on and on.  The further he went the louder the laughter and mocking became but he continued on passing the place where his eldest brother had reached and then beyond where the second eldest brother had reached.  He passed beyond that place and just as he thought he would reach the top of the mountain a crescendo of laughter peeled from all around.  Thinking he heard his brothers laughing behind him he turned expecting to them and the spell took him and he joined them as one of the stones.

The Sister seeks her Brothers

All this time his sister had been alone and pacing up and down in the palace praying that her brothers would return safely.  She hoped they would bring back the objects of their quest, but she would have been more than happy just to have them back without them.   As she paced up and down she was suddenly seized by a terrible dread and a darkness entered her mind and she froze for an instant.   Shaking off the fear she took control of herself and ran to the knife and saw to her horror it had turned blood red.  She gritted her teeth and despite her fear and the danger,  said, “Now I will go and find my brothers and bring them all back with the water of life, the branch from the tree of beauty and the talking bird.”

With that she set off along the path to Yonder Mountain.  She walked and walked for many days and still the mountain seemed no nearer.  She came across a giant and stopped and asked him if he had seen her three brothers and explained the quest to him. The giant told her exactly as he had told her brothers,

“This path will take you all the way to the top of the mountain.  When you arrive at the bottom of the mountain the path will begin to climb upwards and you must continue on.  As you walk up the path it will take you through stony ground and you will see many large stones and boulders all along the way on both sides.  The further you go the more there will be.   You must carry on walking but as you go you will think you hear, laughing, giggling and sniggering coming from all around you.  The further you go the louder and more intense the laughter will become.  It is the stones that are mocking you but you must not heed them at all.  You must concentrate on walking straight ahead until you reach the top. Do not turn, do not look, do not list!  If you pay the slightest bit of attention to them, if you heed them at all you, yourself will become one of them.  If you do not heed them you will reach the top and you will attain everything your heart desires.   Remember well what I say!”

Thanking him for his advice she set off along the path to reach the mountain.  When she came to the foot of the mountain she looked up along the winding path.  She saw the many, many, large stones and boulders strewn all alongside it and remembered the giants warning.  Keeping her mind set and her her eyes fixed straight ahead she made her way up the path through the stony ground.   As she walked she heard, whispering, but she kept her mind fixed and walked on.  She heard giggling and sniggering from all around her but she kept looking straight ahead with her mind rigid on her goal and walked on.  She walked past the places where her brothers were turned to stone and a great barrage of mocking laughter echoed all around her.   In that laughter she heard her brothers voices calling.  She clenched her fists and set her mind and kept her eyes fixed straight ahead.  Despite her fear she made it to the top of the mountain and the clamor died away.

The Top of the Mountain

To her disappointment there was no sign of her brothers, nevertheless, she was greatly relieved.  Looking around she saw a jug standing by a small spring of clear water which was the pool of life.  Alongside the pool grew the tree of beauty and on one of its branches sat the talking bird.  At the bottom of the tree was a golden cage.  She took the jug and filled it with water and then managed to coax the talking bird from the tree and into the cage.  Then she broke a flowering branch from the tree of beauty.  With no sign of her brothers and all the items required to make the palace complete now attained she decide it would best for her to  honor them by returning home with the treasures.

There was no laughter now as she walked down the hill.  As she walked carrying her load, drops of the water of life splashed from the jug and fell on some of the stones,  These immediately sprang up turning into young men and women.  They all crowded around her giving her thanks.  Seeing that this had broken their spell she sprinkled water from the jug all over the stones fetching more and more, as more people were freed from the spell of the stones.  Soon there was a great company of young men and maidens following her down the mountain path.  Among them she found her brothers and never was there a more joyful reunion.

The Girl who Broke the Curse

Together again the brothers with their sister walked the long walk back to home carrying all of the items that would make their palace complete.  As soon as they got back they planted the branch from the tree of beauty and watered it with the water of life.  It quickly grew into a flowering tree whose scent filled the gardens and gave everlasting beauty to those who breathed it.  Then they placed the talking bird in its branches and the perfection of their palace was complete.  Once again word of the splendor of their palace spread far and wide.  People traveled from far and wide and many distant lands to see it and enjoy its perfection.  However, mostly they came to see and meet the brave and remarkable girl who had won the three treasures, saved her brothers and broke the Curse of Yonder Mountain.

© 12/07/2016 zteve t evans

References, Attributions and Further Reading

Copyright zteve t evans

 

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Petrification Myths: Malin Kundang of Sumatra, Indonesia

Petrifaction myths and legends appear in human cultures all around the world.  Very often they carry a warning or are the result of a punishment. In many cases they can be either inspired by a geological feature such as a rock formation or the name given to the feature is inspired by folklore.  Presented next is a retelling of a folktale from Sumatra, Indonesia that carries an important warning about how grown up children should respect their mother.

Malin Kundang

The story begins in a poor fishing village on the coast of Sumatra where a poor widow struggled to bring up her young son whom she had named Malin Kundang.  They existed on a meager living scraped from fishing.  Nevertheless the mother loved her son very much and worked hard to give him the best that she could.   Thanks to her hard work, love and dedication Malin grew into a healthy and clever boy who was always willing to help his mother to earn some money.  However, no matter how hard they worked they could not escape poverty.

One day Malin had an idea and went to his mother and. said,

“Mother, if I stay here I will never have a life.  I don’t want to spend all my life in poverty and I want to be a rich and successful man. What would you say if I told you I wanted to leave the village and sail away to find my fortune?”

Although his mother was devastated at the thought of her only son leaving her alone she swallowed her bitter tears and told him,

“My son, If that us your heart’s desire I cannot stop you.  Although it breaks my heart that you are leaving I will pray that you find happiness and your heart’s desire, but promise me that when you have found every thing that you dream of you will not forget me and come home again to your mother who will be waiting patiently for your return.”

Malin then told his mother he did indeed want to leave which broke her heart.  In the morning he went down to the harbor and found a ship that would take him on a one of the crew.  His mother came and bid him farewell and after embracing him for a long time said,

“Farewell my son, take good care.  I will pray for you, but I fear you will forget me!”

Then he told his mother,

“You take good care of yourself mother!  I promise I will keep in touch and will not forget you and return as soon as I can.”

Again his mother embraced him tightly not wanting to let go until finally he turned away and walked up the gangplank onto the ship.  She watched as the ship carrying her only son slid silently over the horizon into the rising sun and then returned to her home alone.

His Mother’s Vigil

Three months passed and although Malin’s mother prayed every night and every morning for her son she received not a single word or token from him.  The months turned to years and his mother still prayed day and night for her son’s safety and that he would find his heart’s desire.  Every morning and every evening she would go down to the harbor to see what new ships had come hoping that one would bring her son back to her and would stand in silent prayer looking out over the horizon..

Several years passed in this way and one morning as she stood looking out to sea she was surprised to see an unusually big ship sail out of the blue and dock in the harbor at the point where she held her lonely vigil.

Malin Returns

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By The original uploader was Geoethno at German Wikipedia (Original text: Amsterdam, Buffa) (Van de Velde: Gezigten uit Neerlands Indie) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

When the ship was tied securely to the dock she saw a handsome, young man in rich clothing disembark from the ship with a beautiful young woman on his arm.  Both were dressed in the finest clothes and exuded an aura of wealth.  Behind them followed many servants and bodyguards and everyone could see that this fine young couple were wealthy and important people.  Malin’s mother looked in surprise and although her eyes had grown weak and weary from crying for her son she recognized him despite this and saw through the finery the young man wore.  She knew this was her son and knew she could not be wrong.  Excitedly she ran up to to him and threw her arms around his neck crying,

“Malin, Malin, my beloved son you gave come back to me!”

Shock and disappointment overcame her as the young man coldly stared straight ahead and showed no response whatsoever.

“I have prayed day and night for you and missed you so much and now my prayers are answered and you have returned to me!”

Rejection

In truth, Malin felt embarrassment at the sight of this poor old woman dressed in rags.  He thought of his own wealth and fine clothes, he thought of all his servants and bodyguards and he thought of the beautiful young woman on his arm. Although he knew she was his mother he felt ashamed and embarrassed at her poverty and his own humble origins and did not want to let on about his past life to his companion.

Roughly, he thrust his mother away and glared coldly at her saying,

“You are not my mother!  My mother would never wear such poor and ragged clothes.  I don’t know you, go way!”

Shocked and distressed his mother stepped back, sobbing and said,

“Malin, I am your mother stop teasing me!  I have waited so long to see you again you must know me!”

But Malin stared coldly and dispassionately ahead with his face fixed and his eyes cold. Turning to one of his bodyguards he said,

Guard, take this ragged old beggar woman out of my sight!  Give her some money to be rid of her!”

And the guard grasped the old lady by her arm and dragged her roughly away, all the time she was crying out,

“Malin!  Oh Malin my long lost son! Why do you treat me so cruelly?”

Mail ignored his mother’s pleas and ordered the ship to make ready to sail.  He and his beautiful lady returned to the ship which set sail and sailed stately out of the harbor.

Poor Malin’s mother was left distraught and sobbing upon the harbor as the ship sailing upon a calm and quiet sea and disappeared over the horizon.  Anguish and hurt coursed through her body which turned to anger and she fell upon her knees and prayed,

“Dear God, if that young man was not my son bless him with a safe journey and a safe return home.  If he was Malin, my son, I curse him that as soon as he sets foot on land that he may turn to stone.”

So it was that beyond the horizon the ship ran into a storm that whipped the calm and quiet sea into a frenzy.  As thunder rolled and lightning flashed and the rain lashed down the ship was taken by the wild waves and was shipwrecked.  Malin struggled against the giant waves but eventually made it to a beach called Air Manis, near Padang, West Sumatra.

Turned to Stone

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The Malin Kundang Stone – By Crisco 1492 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

The God, who sees and hears all looked down.  As Malin stepped upon the land he felt his entire body begin to stiffen and he fell forward on to his knees as of one begging for mercy and then fell forward again in supplication to the Divine.  In that position his entire body turned into stone and can be seen to this day on a beach at Pantai Air Manis, Padang, and is called the Malin Kundang Stone.  It is said to exist as testament to the punishment that will be meted out to those who choose to reject their own mother.

© 26/07/2017 zteve t evans

References, Attributions and Further Reading

Copyright July 26th, 2017 zteve t evans

Petrification Myths: The Children of Waitaiki

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By Arthur James Iles (1870 – 1943) – Photographer (New Zealander) Born in Oamaru, New Zealand. Dead in Rotorua, New Zealand. Details of artist on Google Art Project [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Poutini

In the myths and legends of the Ngai Tahu people who live on Te Waipounamu also known as the South Island of New Zealand, Poutini was a water spirit they called a Taniwha.  Poutini was the protector of the people and was also the guardian of several types of mineral including nephrite jade, serpentine, and bowenite and often known collectively as greenstone today.  The Ngai Tahu people called the greenstone, Pounamu and it was a highly prized mineral in their culture used for carving jewelry and ornaments in particular. They believed that all things had a life force or essence they called mauri and Poutini was the guardian of the life force of this special mineral.

Waitaiki

Poutini was believed to have his home in the wild seas off the West Coast of the South Island, or “Te Tai o Poutini”.  There was once a time when he would roam far from home. One day while he was basking in the warm waters off Tuhua, which is now known as Mayor Island which lies off the Bay of Plenty of the North Island, he saw the most beautiful woman he had ever seen in his life and he wanted her for himself.  Without further thought, he lunged forward and grabbed her and carried her off to the mainland. The woman’s name was Waitaiki and she was married to a mighty chief named Tama-ahua who was skilled in the magical arts and the ways of the world of the spirits.  As soon as he realized his wife had been kidnapped he threw a magical dart high into the air.  The dart pointed the way and Tama-ahua paddled his canoe across the sea following the dart.

Tama-ahua

Meanwhile, Poutini had reached the mainland and Waitaiki was chilled through to the bone.  He lit a fire to warm her but he hearing Tama-ahua coming he immediately took up Waitaiki and carried her across country with Tama-ahua hard on his trail.  The chase continued but every now and then Poutini was forced to stop to light a fire to warm his shivering captive.  Each place he stopped at to light a fire became an important source of Pounamu.

The Tears of Waitaiki

With Tama-ahua hot on the trail Poutini carried Waitaiki southward to Piopiotahi which is now called Milford Sound. All this time poor Waitaiki was weeping, frightened and very, very cold and she begged and begged Poutini to take her home.   Poutini would not listen and was still inflamed with lust for her and carried her up the Arahura River to its headwaters hoping to lose his pursuer.  However, Tama-ahua was still being guided by his magical dart and whichever way Poutini went trying to throw Tama-ahua off his trail the dart pointed the way.  It was only a matter of time before Tama-ahua caught up.  When he found his wife’s tears that she had shed that had turned to stone he redoubled his efforts in anger. The Ngai Tahu people find these petrified tears of Waitaiki and call it Tangiwai  which means tears that come from great sorrow.  They are clear like glass but are found in various shades and are also called Bowenite.

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By Vassil (Own work) [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons

Turned to Pounamu

Realising Poutini had changed direction he followed his dart along the seashore to the Arahura River.  He followed the river upstream until nightfall and decided to stop and rest for the night so that he could be strong and as fresh as possible for the final confrontation with Poutini being confident he would catch up with him the next day.
Poutini knew that Tama-ahua was closing in on him and while carrying Waitiki he could not go any faster and he grew afraid.  He feared the strength and courage of Tama-ahua and feared his magic but vowed he would never give up Waitaiki. He made up his mind that if he could not have her no one else would.   Summoning up his own magical powers he changed Waitaiki into his own essence which was the same as that of Pounamu and placed her on the river’s bed.

The Children of Waitaiki

Then he sneaked past Tama-ahua while he was asleep and headed back downstream towards the sea.  When Tama-ahua awoke he followed the river upstream until he came to the headwaters where he expected to find Poutini, but he had gone.  Looking around Tama-ahua found Waitiki laid out on the riverbed.  Her body was hard and cold and had  been turned into the greenstone that the Ngai Tahu people call the Mother of Pounamu.  To them, her children were the fragments that break off her as the river washed over her and were carried down to the sea and she became the motherlode of all of the pounamu of the Arahura River.

The Tangi of Tama-ahua

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By Captain Richard Aldworth Oliver delt. Dickinson & Co. lith. [London, 1852] [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Poutini went back home where he still swims along the coast and remains the guardian of pounamu.  As for Tama-ahua, overcome with grief he composed his Tangi which is a song of mourning.  He sang this with all his heart and soul and his voice is said to still resonate in the mountains today.

© 07/06/2016 zteve t evans

Reference, Attributions and Further Reading

Copyright June 7th, 2017 zteve t evans

Petrification Myths:  Coyote and the Legend People of Bryce Canyon

Petrification Myths: Coyote and the Legend People of Bryce Canyon

In the desert of southwest Utah in the United States of America is a remarkable place known as Bryce Canyon which many, many bizarre and colorful rock formations. The canyon is named after Ebenezer Bryce, a Mormon pioneer who settled in the area in 1874.  However, the Native American Paiute people of the region who were there long before the arrival of pioneers called it Angka-ku-wass-a-wits or red painted faces.

Bryce Canyon must surely be one of the most extraordinary natural places on earth.  It is a place where strange rock formations of yellow, orange and reddish brown that change hue as the light changes and fill the mind with many fantastical shapes and forms that appear grotesquely humanoid.

In geological terms, these columns are called hoodoos a term also used in witchcraft and the supernatural.  The Paiute people tell a very different story to the geologists but both explanations are really very extraordinary.   Presented first is a brief and simplified version of the geological explanation.  This is followed by a version of the traditional explanation given by the Paiute people who believed the columns were created when a mythical race called the Legend people were punished by their divine entity Coyote.

The Creation of the Landscape

First of all Bryce Canyon is not a canyon in geological terms.  It was created in a very different way to canyons which are created by weathering and the erosive action of rivers.   Instead, the Bryce landscape was created by a natural process called frost wedging which works over a great period of time to alter and recreate the entire landscape.  This process happens in Bryce Canyon because for most days of the year the temperature fluctuates to above freezing and drops to below zero in the course of a single day.

During daytime, seasonal snow melts and the water seeps into cracks and fractures in the rock and when it freezes at night it turns to ice and expands causing it to crack and fracture further and forcing sections of it apart making wedges into the rock forcing it apart.  This happens about 200 times a year in Bryce Canyon and an another process called frost heaving also comes into play forcing rocks upward from the bottom.   These two natural actions are supplemented by wind and rainwater which is naturally slightly acidic and this gently rounds off the rocks slowly dissolving the edges. And it is these natural processes that have combined to create the fantastical landscape of Bryce Canyon and it’s weird and wonderful hoodoos that are its main feature.  So that is a very quick and simplified precis of the scientific explanation but the Paiute people have another explanation

The Legend People of Bryce Canyon

According to Paiute legend and tradition millions of years before they appeared on earth there was another people who lived in the area called To-when-an-ung-wa or the Legend people.  In those days the land was said to be different being very green and verdant with streams and rivers of fresh clean running water.  Animals and birds were plentiful and the hoodoos were not yet created.

The Legend people took the form of giant animals, reptiles, and birds and in their land of plenty gave no thought to others who shared it with them.  They would drink up all the water and despoil what was left so others could not use.  They would eat and take all the nuts, fruits and berries leaving nothing for other creatures to survive the winter on.  They never gave a thought for the other animals and birds that shared the land which became less fertile and abundant.

Coyote

At last the animals and birds began to complain loudly about the inconsiderate and selfish behavior of the legend people and how carelessly and recklessly they despoiled all the fruits and good resources of the Earth.  One day the spirit they called Coyote heard them while he was out walking and went to see what was going on.  Coyote was angry at what he saw and decided to punish the Legend people.  He had a reputation for being a trickster which was well earned and he decided there and then he would trick the Legend people.

Coyote invited them to a great feast promising them they would be served the best food and drink they had ever been given.  The Legend people were always greedy for more food and drink and readily accepted the invitation.  They put on their best clothing and painted their faces red as was their custom at such occasions and went to the great feast of Coyote to eat their fill.

When they arrived they found the best food they had ever seen all laid out and ready for them to tuck into.  Coyote was watching and just as they were about to take the first bite of food he cast a spell.   Suddenly, one, by one they all began turning to stone.  Naturally, those not yet affected began to panic and tried to escape trying to climb over the ridge of the valley. They all pushed and pulled and scrambled over one another but there was no escape and gradually they all succumbed to the spell of Coyote.   It was a scene of madness, mayhem and sheer hell.  Soon their struggling ceased and all were turned into columns of stone, their bodies and faces rigid and paralyzed in their final act of standing, sitting, crawling,  climbing, running or whatever and there they have remained through the ages as a testament to their greed and selfishness.

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By Don Graham from Redlands, CA, USA – God bless it! (Ancestors, Bryce Canyon NP, UT 9-09) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

The Pauite People

When the Paiute people arrived they found the hoodoos and could see their red faces in the rock columns just as they were before they were petrified.  This is why they called the place Angka-ku-wass-a-wits, which means red painted faces and these are the hoodoos we see today in Bryce Canyon.  Some people today say their faces have been eroded so much over the centuries that they cannot be recognized and people will forget the story of the Legend people.  Those who can see know Coyote still wanders the wilderness and know he has not lost his power and they will not forget why he turned red painted faces to stone.

© 23/05/17 zteve t evans

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Copyright May 23rd, 2017 zteve t evans

Petrification Myths: Mischief, Mayhem and the Pesky Lincoln Imp

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Lincoln Imp – Image by Richard Croft – CC BY-SA 2.0

On the walls of Lincoln Cathedral in the city of Lincoln in England is a rather strange figure of an imp that is carved on the stonework of a pillar inside the cathedral.  Despite its strangeness, or perhaps because of it,  the imp has become a symbol of the city as well as a number of other local organizations.  There is a legend that tells that the grotesque was once a real imp that was turned to stone by an angel.

The Legend of the Lincoln Imp

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St. John and All Saints Church, Chesterfield – By Charlesdrakew – Public Domain

The legend is thought to date from the 13th or 14th century and tells how two imps were sent to Earth by Satan to cause as much mischief and mayhem as possible.   Arriving in the north of  England they set about their task with glee and malice causing mayhem and mischief everywhere they went.  Settling on the spire of St. Mary’s Church in Chesterfield they spitefully twisted it out of shape and even today the results of their mischief can still be seen. Today, the Crooked Spire is a well-known feature of Chesterfield, though there are other legends which give different accounts of how this came to be.

The imps were not satisfied with their handiwork and went on a spree of mayhem and mischief.  They soon caused chaos across the north and the imps decided to visit Lincoln. Coming across the cathedral they set about causing as much devilment as they could.  They broke chairs and tables and vandalized everything in sight and were even said to have tripped up the Bishop.   They caused so much damage that an angel was sent to deal with the imps and to put things right.

The legend says the angel appeared out of a hymn book as they were vandali\ing the Angel Choir and immediately ordered the two miscreants to stop.   One of the imps, terrified by the angel obeyed and hid under a broken table.  The other was bolder and more evil and as well as throwing stones at the angel threw insults as well.   The angel was taking no nonsense from the imp and promptly turned him to stone there and then.  As the other imp had obeyed him and had not thrown stones or insults the angel spared him the same fate as his friend and gave it a stern warning.  The imp did not need a second warning and quickly skedaddled.   There is a saying that when the wind blows around Lincoln Cathedral it is the imp flying around in circles looking for his friend who can be seen in the cathedral to this day, looking down from where he was petrified to stone by the angel.  Different parts of the UK have variations of this legend.

The Grimsby Imp

One variation of the legend is found in Grimsby and tells how the second imp, having escaped petrification by the angel in Lincoln Cathedral, made his way to Grimsby.  Imps being imps are born to make trouble this one soon began to cause mischief and mayhem around Grimsby.  Finding  St. James’ Church,  the imp went in and began a spree of vandalism inside causing great damage.  The angel who had exercised leniency at Lincoln was sent to deal with the imp and seeing it was the same one he had spared spared, this time gave it a good thrashing on its backside and then turned it to stone. Imps may be imps but they should not mess with angels!

The Term “Lincoln Imp”

The symbol appears to have been termed the “Lincoln Imp” because it is the best known example and seems to have the first come to popular usage in the 19th century, even though it is far older and many examples predate the 18th century.  It may that it came to the public attention more in the latter part of the 19th century when a businessman named James Ward Usher managed to get the sole rights to make jewelry using the symbol in his designs which helped to make him famous and wealthy.

The Imp as a Symbol

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Modern example of the use of theLincoln Imp in the gable end of a garage in Farndale – Image by gordon clitheroe – CC BY-SA 2.0

The imp usually appears with cloven feet and with one leg raised to rest upon the other knee and both hands are gripping the leg that is on the knee.  It has a hairy body and open mouth displaying sharp teeth and has ears like those of a cow.

The imp is a symbol that appears in many parts of England and Scotland.  For example,   All Saints Church, Easington, Yorkshire has a carved stone figure of an imp.  The reason they were placed in churches or other places or their meaning is unknown.  It may be that these are not associated or representative of either the Lincoln or Grimsby imps but have some other purpose.  The use of the symbol is thought to predate both of these legends and many see its use as a similar mystery as that of the Green Man or the Three Hares symbol.

The Lincoln Imp is still a popular symbol and appears on the crest of Lincoln City Football Club and their mascot is known as Poacher the Imp.    A Gibraltar football club Lincoln Red Imps F.C., also takes their name from it and a World War 2, RAF  Squadron No. LXI Squadron RAF used the imp in its emblem until it was disbanded in 1958.  The Lincoln Imp is a symbol strongly associated with Lincoln and Lincolnshire and used by many local organizations and enterprises.  It appears in many works of art and jewelry still and is also found in churches and buildings in many other parts of England and Scotland. and many products of all kinds are found bearing its image.  Ultimately the legend of the Lincoln Imp portrays the imp as a symbol of the triumph of God over Satan and the never ending battle between good and evil reminding us that good will always triumph over evil.

© 09/05/2017 zteve t evans

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Copyright May 9th, 2017 zteve t evans

Petrification Myths: The Legend of the Great Stone Mother of the Paiutes


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Pyramid Lake, Nevada – by Rhalden – Public Domain

The Paiute people are a Native American people living in areas of California, Nevada and Oregon, Arizona, southeastern parts of California and Utah. They have a rich heritage of culture and tradition and strong family values.   In the past, much of their known history had been passed on orally to their children from a long line of ancestors.  Like many other cultures, they used folktales to pass on information and to attempt to make sense of the world around them.   Presented here is the story of the Great Stone Mother is one of their folktales and what is presented here is a rewrite from more than one source,  but first a word about the Great Stone Mother.

The Great Stone Mother of the Paiutes people sits on the eastern shore of Pyramid Lake, in eastern Nevada, North America and is actually an extraordinary natural tufa rock formation. It bears a remarkable likeness to the figure of a hooded Indian woman sat looking out over the lake with her basket resting next to her.  To the Paiutes she has not always been stone but was the mother of their people.  What follows next is an extraordinary legend that tells of their origin and how she became petrified into stone.

The Legend of the Great Stone Mother

When the world was very young Man, the father of the people, roamed the earth alone and came to a mountain that was near still water.  Finding the place to his liking he made the Reese River and decided to live there. The father had a good and great soul but he was lonely living on his own and longed for company.

Many days passed and eventually rumor of the existence of Man reached Woman, who became the mother of the people, but at then was married to Bear.  She grew very curious about Man and longed to see him.   When Bear found out about her longing he grew very jealous and fought with Woman.   The two fought fiercely for many days until Woman hit Bear with a club and killed him.

Now she was on her own Woman decided she would search for Man so she left her home country and traveled north in the hope of finding him.   On her journey, she saw many strange things and had many adventures.  The tracks of her footprints can be seen to this day at Mono Lake and revered by the people.   As she traveled she faced many dangers and fought with a giant near a place now called Yerington and killed him.  As he died his body turned to stone and can be seen today.

After many more days Woman came to Stillwater near the mountain where Man lived.  When at last she saw  Man she saw he was handsome and she liked him.  However,  she would not show herself to him for fear he would not accept her and leave her alone in the world. Not knowing what else to do she hid from him and watched him from a distance.

Man and Woman

One day Man was out walking and came across tracks he had not seen before and he knew he was no longer alone in the world.  He followed the tracks and called out saying he knew someone was there and pleaded for them to stop hiding from him.  Woman heard Man calling to her and wanted to join him but she was nervous and afraid.    After listening to his calls she eventually plucked up courage and came out of hiding to meet him.

Man saw her nervousness and fear and spoke to her with kind and soothing words and her anxiety left her.   He saw she was tired and hungry and invited her to his camp for food and rest. She was hungry and very tired and she listened to his kind words and feeling reassured she followed him.

Man prepared them both some food and when they had finished eating he asked her if she would like to stay with him the night as it darkness was falling.   Woman agreed but slept by the fire away from him.  The following night she slept a little closer to him.  The night after she slept even closer.  Over the following night’s Woman slept closer and closer each night until at last on the fourth night they slept together.   On the fifth night, they were married and later on had many, many children together.

The Separation of the Children

Their first child was a boy but he had a very disagreeable and argumentative nature.  When the other children came he was always teasing and bullying them and caused them trouble all the time.  One day their father saw them fighting and warned them that if they continued this behavior he would separate them. The children provoked by the firstborn began fighting before he had even finished talking.

This angered him and he stopped them fighting and told them he had made up his mind they should be separated there and then.  He told them that he was leaving earth to go and live in his home in the sky and that when they died they could follow him by traveling along the dusty way,  which is called the Milky Way today, where he would be waiting for them.  Then he told them that he hoped one day they would all come to their senses and live peacefully together.

He called his eldest boy and his eldest daughter to him and told them they must go west and they became the Pit River Tribe.   Then he sent his youngest son with the youngest daughter eastwards and they became the Bannock Tribe.  The other children who had been less troublesome he told to remain at home instructing them to look after their mother well as she would also be staying behind.   These children of Man and Woman who stayed behind became the Paiutes Tribe.    When Man had finished giving instructions he traveled to the mountain top and up into the sky and along the Dusty way to his home in the stars.
The two brothers went their separate ways with their sisters as their father had instructed.

Bitter Tears

Soon they had many children and both families returned to their parent’s home bringing their families with them.  They soon began fighting again and their mother was heartbroken.  Taking her basket she climbed to the summit of a hill and watched her sons and their families fight against each other in the valley below and she began to cry bitter tears for she loved her children.  The harder they fought the more she cried.

The Great Stone Mother

They fought for many moons and their mother cried more and more and her tears flowed down her face and filled the valley.  Many more moons passed and still, they fought and still she cried and her bitter tears filled up the valley to create a great and beautiful body of water that today is called Pyramid Lake.  She sat on the hill crying for so long that she turned to stone and there she sits to this day with her basket sitting next to her and the Paiutes call her their Great Stone Mother.

© 02/05/2017  zteve t evans

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Copyright May 5th, 2017 zteve t evans

Petrification Myths: The Stone Women of Moelfre Hill

There are many petrification myths and legends in settings scattered around the British Isles that tell how people have become turned to stone.  It is often the case that some religious code or rule has been transgressed by one or more people for some reason and they have been punished by being turned to stone.

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Moelfre in Gwynedd – Image by Oosoom – CC BY-SA 3.0 – From Wikimedia Commons

The Stone Women of Moelfre Hill

The legend of the Stone Women of Moelfre tells the story of how three women were turned to stone for working on the Sabbath.  Its setting is on Moelfre, which  is a Welsh hill in Gwynedd, Wales sitting on the western edge of the Snowdonia National Park, situated about three miles from the village of Dyffryn Ardudwy and about five miles from the village of Llanbedr.

The legend was said to have originated about the time Christianity was taking over from the old pagan beliefs and tells how three women had a problem winnowing their corn because there was no wind.  Winnowing was an important task that their families and community depended upon to make bread.  According to the legend, one woman wore a red kirtle.  Another wore a white kirtle and the third wore a kirtle of the darkest blue.

After the corn was harvested the people would thresh the corn, sometimes by making oxen walk in circles over the harvested ears of corn, or by pounding it on the ground with flails.  This would crush the ears leaving the chaff and grain that needed separating, or winnowing which was hard work and done by the women of the community.  They would spend many hours  throwing the mixed chaff and grain into the air so that the wind would take the light chaff away but leave the heavier grain to fall to the ground.  The remaining grain would then be placed in sacks and ground into flour.

The problem the women had was that for many days there had been no wind or even the slightest breeze, making it impossible for them to winnow.  The women worried that unless they could get their task done soon it would rain and ruin the corn.  The grain and chaff would get wet making them stick together and hard to separate and they would not be able to bake bread to feed their families and began to despair that they would not be able to complete their task.

Then the woman wearing the red kirtle had an idea and said to the others, “I say there is bound to be wind on the top of Moelfre.  Let us carry sacks of grain up there and do the winnowing there.”

“But we would be working on the Sabbath if we did that!”  said the woman in the white kirtle. It was a Sunday and on Sundays in Wales no one at all was allowed to work because it was the Sabbath.

“But if the wind is blowing on Moelfre, shall we let it go to waste and have no flour to bake bread?”  said the woman in blue, “And what would we tell our children when they have no bread?  I will fetch three sacks and we can fill them up and carry them up to Moelfre.”

They all agreed that they should this so they filled up a sack each and hoisting them across their backs began the arduous journey along the path to the top of Moelfre.   On the way they passed a cottage where an old man looked out of his door and was shocked to see them hauling the sacks up the path.   He gave them a stern warning about the consequences of working on the Sabbath but the women continued on their way ignoring him.  They passed a farm and the farmer shouted out a warning that it was the Sabbath and told them to stop or they would be punished.  The women laughed at him and carried on.

Their path took them through the valley where the men of Neolithic times made axes out of the sharp Graig Lwyd stone.  Passing though, they climbed the path to the high hill where the Meini Hirion, also called the Druid’s Stone Circle stood and passed this and continued on their way.  They knew that the summit of Moelfre was not far off and that there would be wind there and redoubled their efforts.

Finally the reached the summit of the hill.  Just as they had anticipated the wind was just right for their task so they spread out a sheet on the ground to catch the grain when it fell out of  the air.  They emptied the contents of their sacks into a heap and began the arduous task of winnowing the corn throwing up into air so that the wind took the husks and the grain fell onto the sheet on the ground.  Then as they were busily working away a terrible thing happened.   The  legend says that  God saw them working on the Sabbath and punished them for disobeying his law and turned them into three standing stones.  One red, one white and one dark blue and there they stood on top of Moelfre for years untold, but not forever.

Triple Goddess

There is a school of thought that says the three women represent a triple goddess.  Robert Graves in his book The White Goddess, says,  “The three standing stones thrown down from Moelfre Hill near Dwygyfylchi in Wales in the iconoclastic seventeenth century may well have represented the Io trinity. One was white, one dark red, one dark blue and they were known as three women. The local monkish legend was that three women dressed in those colors were petrified for winnowing on a Sunday.”

Others also see the three stones places in a triangle as representing a triple goddess and the colours representing a different aspect of the goddess.  Their supposed petrification may not have been just a warning about working on the Sabbath but possibly a warning of possible punishment inflicted for keeping the old ways.

Vandalism

Today there are no standing stones on the summit of Moelfre.  Some people say  those who search they may find three stones below the turf that appear to have sunk into the ground and these are said to be the Stone Women of Moelfre.   Another explanation offered by Wirt Sikes in British Goblins – Welsh Folk-Lore, Fairy Mythology, Legends and Traditions was that they were subject to vandalism by a gang of youths who dug them up and rolled them down the hill.

© 28/03/2017 zteve t evans

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Copyright March 3rd, 2017 zteve t evans