Petrification Myths: The Witch Dancer of Lengmoos

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Fotograf: Stefan Kuhn – CC BY-SA 3.0

Petrification myths and legends are found all around the world.  Sometimes someone is turned to stone as and act of divine retribution when they upset the gods and sometimes legends are attached to natural geological features of the landscape.  The following is a rewrite of  a folktale called The Witches of Lengmoos from Tales and Legends of the Tyrol, by Countess Marie A. Günther and tells how an arrogant young man offended God and was punished for his offense by being  turned to stone.

The Witches of Lengmoos

In Lengstein, there was once the son of a rich peasant who traveled to many foreign places.  He met many people and saw many strange and wonderful things and came across many new ideas.  When he returned home he would mock all of the good and faithful peasants who would faithfully say the rosary every evening.  His mother became increasingly worried and concerned as she heard him mocking and belittling the holy church calling it nothing but the ridiculous joke of priests.

Thursday Nights

Every Thursday he was often found drinking with his friends in the local inn.  As the ale flowed so did the stories.  Many stories were told and each one was exaggerated a bit further than the last.   On one such evening one of his friends told how every Thursday night a coven of witches would meet and carry out rituals and dance on the Birchboden mountain nearby.   They would arrive on the wings of the wind coming from all directions and all areas of the country and there they would hold their dark Sabbat.

As soon as he heard this the young man boasted that he would join them in their dance that night.  His friends strongly advised him not to but despite their warning he would not listen and set off that very evening.   Reluctantly, his friends followed him, pleading with him not to go through with it, but he would not listen. They followed him to the Mittelberg where the Kebebelschmeide rises and the mountain stream called the Finsterbach rushes through a gully, but they would go no further that night.  The bold young man laughed at them calling them foolish and ran through the forest alone singing happy songs to a place where stood many pyramids of porphyry  twenty to thirty feet high.

The Witches Sabbat

On arriving he saw many, many witches all dancing wildly around in circles, leaping and performing somersaults and other acrobatics and tricks. The young man was delighted with what he saw and ran to join them in their wild dancing and antics.  There he stayed joining in with all of their dancing but as the church bells of Lengmoos struck midnight all of the pyramids of porphyry shuddered violently and the Finsterbach foamed up wildly.

The Witch Dancer

His friends watching from a safe distance saw all of this and then when a wild black storm hit the mountain in fury they ran to a nearby hut for shelter.  There they stayed until morning until the storm abated as quickly as it had started. They waited until the bell of the morning Angelus had rang when they knew the power of the witches would also abate and then went out to find their friend.   To their abject horror they found him transformed into solid stone with his legs up to his knees firmly embedded in the ground. He remains there to this day and no moss or lichen will grow upon his petrified form. No bird will perch on, or fly over his body and no man or woman will go near this place for fear of the divine retribution wreaked upon the “witch-dancer” of the Lengmoos who dared to  mock the Lord.

© 16/10/2018 zteve t evans

References, Attributions and Further Reading

Copyright October 16th, 2018 zteve t evans

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Petrification Myths: The Legend of the Creation of the Iguazú Falls

A Wonder of the World

The Iguazú Falls are a natural wonder of the world situated on the Iguazi River on the border of Argentina and Brazil.   In the Guarani/Tupi language, Iguazú, means big water and the Iguazú waterfall system is the largest in the world. People lived around the Iguazú Falls long before the arrival of the Spanish having their own long held beliefs and religion.  One of their most important rituals was the annual sacrifice of a virgin to M’Boi, the Serpent God who lived in the Iguazú River and was the son of Tupa, the Supreme God.

Naipi and Taruba

In a village on the banks of the Iguazú lived a very beautiful maiden named Naipi who was to be married to a great warrior named Taruba from a nearby tribe.  The two of them were deeply in love and looked forward to the blessed day with excitement and anticipation. One day before her wedding Napi went walking along the banks of the river and as M’Boi passed along the river he looked up and saw her.  Never had he seen a maiden of such grace and beauty before and he fell in love with her. He decided he must have her and went to the Guarani elders telling them of his desire and demanding they give her to him in the sacred ritual.

A Desperate Plan

The elders were frightened of M’Boi and rather than upset him they decided that Naipi would be sacrificed to him the day before her wedding.  Of course poor Naipi was frightened and upset and Taruba was furious and determined that she would not face such a terrible death. They knew that if the elders found out they would stop them and if M’Boi found out they would both die, but decided that death together would be better than death apart.  Therefore, they decided they would run away together and set a time and place of rendezvous to carry out their desperate plan. As Naipi and Taruba were setting off in a canoe to go down river the Serpent God saw them and chased after them furiously.

M’Boi’s Anger

Taruba rowed with all of his strength and managed to keep a few feet ahead of the angry god.  M’Boi became so angry that his serpent body expanded to the width of the river. As he twisted and turned he created new curves in the river making the canoe rock dangerously two and fro but this only increased the anger and determination of Taruba who rowed even harder refusing to give up.   Suddenly, M’Boi became so filled with rage he caused the very earth to split asunder causing the river to plummet wildly into the chasm he had created taking the vessel with it, causing it to spin uncontrollably around. The sheer force sent Taruba flying from the canoe to land onto the bank.  Trapped in the falling canoe Naipi watched helplessly as the bottom of the chasm opened up under her. As she was about to smash into the bottom M’Boi transformed her into massive rock to stop her escaping him.

Rainbow

On seeing his beloved turn to stone, Taruba attempted to climb down to her but M’Boi pulled his hands into the earth and as he stretched out his fingers to try and take hold they turned into roots and Taruba turned into a palm tree on the Brazilian side of the falls  that was forever rooted to the place above the newly formed waterfall. From this position Taruba could see Naipa on the Argentine side of the falls and she could see him but they could never ever touch, kiss or embrace. To make sure this never happens the jealous Serpent God watches them from a deep part of the river called the Devil’s Throat. Nevertheless, although Naipa and Taruba can never be reunited their love can be seen forming a rainbow from the palm tree on Brazilian side of the falls to the rock that is Naipa on the Argentine side.

© 29/08/2018 zteve t evans

References, Attributions and Further Reading

Copyright August 29th, 2018 zteve t evans

Petrification Myths: The Indonesian Folktale of Dewi Jurangga and the Son of Bromo

The island of Java in the Indonesian archipelago is rich in ancient culture and tradition and full of wonderful stories that tell the lives of its inhabitant and their relationships with each other, the landscape, nature and the gods. Presented below is a retelling of an Indonesian folktale called The Holy Mountain, from Indonesian tales and Folk Tales by Adele de Leeuw, which provides a folkloric explanation of how certain volcanoes and the Sea of Sand was created in the Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park

The Giant of the Holy Mountain

There was once a mighty giant who had ruled over the god Indra’s holy mountain of Semeru since the beginning of the world.  His realm reached all around it above ground and extended below it under the ground.  This giant had a daughter whom he loved more than anything else and he had named Dewi Jurangga.  He watched over her day and night keeping her safe and keeping her hidden from the eyes of the world in his a part of his kingdom underneath the mountain.  So well did he guard his daughter that she had never been outside the kingdom under the holy mountain. She did not know what daylight was and had never known fresh air, never known the green leaves and beautiful flowers and never heard birds sing.

Every single day the giant would walk around the bounds of his kingdom  to make sure everything was in order. One day as her father went out to inspect his kingdom, she had a sudden yearning to know what the world of light above ground looked like.  Making sure he had gone, she ran up the way which she knew would bring her to the world of light on the earth because she had seen her father take it.

Dewi Jurangga’s Adventure

Stepping out into the sunshine, at first she was blinded, but as her eyes slowly became accustomed to the light, she grew increasingly enchanted by all the beautiful things she saw that she had never seen before.  First, she looked at the sky which was so deep and wide and blue and was awed.  She saw fluffy white clouds floating across it and was intrigued.  She saw beautiful green leaves and gorgeous flowers of so many different colors and was thrilled and she walked out into the world for the first time full of wonder and excitement and was happy.
Everything she was seeing, hearing, smelling and touching was beyond her wildest dreams and as she walked she seemed to be floating through a beautiful wonderland of new experience.  She could hear the birds singing and the insects buzzing and smell the glorious scent of the flowers and she floated on enthralled by it all. She floated over the rice fields and over the meadows and saw goats and cattle grazing and then she saw a man standing before her and she stopped.  She looked at him and smiled and he looked at her and smiled.

She thought he looked like her father, but was much younger and much more handsome than he.  He stood before her amazed at seeing her and quietly and gently said, “May I ask who you are?”

She had never before heard the voice of anyone else other than the deep rumbling sound of her father’s and she was charmed to hear the soft, gentle speech of the young man and said,

“My name is Dewi Jurangga and I am new in the world above the ground.  I am the daughter of the giant who is the King of the Holy Mountain of Indra.  This is the first time I have ever been above ground and walked upon the earth instead of under it.  This is the first time I have smelled the clean fresh air and the fragrance of flowers and seen the beautiful blue sky. It is the first  time I have met and spoken to anyone other than my father.”

Then the two chatted together like old friends.  She told him that she was so in love with the world above the surface of the earth that she wanted to give up the immortality bestowed upon her by the gods.

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Mt Batok dormant in foreground, Mt. Bromo belching sulphur to the left, Mt. Semeru erupting in the distance By Michael Day [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

The Son of Bromo

Then asked him if he was one of the divine gods, or a giant and he told her with great joy in his eyes,

 “I am the raksasa, the warden of the great temple of the gods appointed to this task by Brahma.  I am the son of a giant almost as powerful as your father and his name is Bromo.  I have set out to look for a wife because the gods have told me I would find one near the Holy Mountain and now I have found her, if you would give your consent!” 

At first Dewi Jurangga, was pleased and flattered and then she remembered her father and as sadness darkened her eyes she said,

“I fear I can cannot be your wife.  My father loves me more than anything else and he guards and protects me.  To him I am the light of his eyes and he will never allow me to marry a raksasa, especially one who is the son of Bromo who he hates.”

“Why will he not let us marry and why does he hate my father so?” asked the puzzled raksasa in disappointment.

she said sadly.

“He hates your father because his mountain sends fire and fumes and streams of molten lava to flow down into the fertile fields on the borders of his land.  One night your father sent so much fire it changed them all into an arid and infertile plain where nothing will grow nothing. That is why my father hates your father and will never let me marry his son,” 

The son of Bromo shook his head and said defiantly, “That may be so, but I am going to go to you father and ask his permission to marry you, if you agree,”

Dewi Jurangga told him she wanted to be his wife more than anything else in the world. With her agreement that very evening before sunset, he went to the her father in his kingdom under the Holy Mountain and begged her hand in marriage.

The Sea of Sand

He father was furious and roared and thundered with rage.  His daughter told him that if he did not allow the marriage she would go to Mount Bromo and throw herself in the lake of fire, at which he roared louder than ever.  He roared and roared until he could roar no more and sat silently trembling with rage.  Then, shaking his head sadly he said to the son of Bromo,

“Let me tell you this.  Many, many, years ago I vowed to the gods that my daughter, who is the light of my life, would only marry a divine being and not a son of a giant.  Her husband must be the son of a god and to prove his divinity and power he must create a sea of sand around the mountain of Bromo, my enemy. It must be a thousand feet deep and a thousand feet wide, so that the fires and lava from Bromo’s mountain will be extinguished. There will be no fuel to feed the flames and the lava will sink into the suffocating sand and die and will not burn my fields.  The sea of sand must be created in one night between the time of sundown and the first crow of the cock. If you can create this sea of sand as I have described it in one night, you shall have my daughter for your wife. If the sea of sand is not fully complete by the first cock crow you shall both be turned to stone and remain stone for one thousand times one thousand years.”

On hearing this the raksasa stood deep in thought for a few moments then looked into the lovely eyes of Dewi Jurangga and said,

“I will try this challenge for it would be better to be turned to stone and have a heart of stone that feels nothing than to live one day without your daughter as my wife.  Tomorrow at sundown I will attempt the challenge.”

Turning to Dewi Jurangga he asked her if she agreed and she readily told him she did and then he said, “Find the largest possible coconut and cut it in half.  Take half the shell to the very place we first met and lay it on the ground. I will be there before sunset.”

So Dewi Jurangga did as he asked and just before sunset went to him at the spot where they had first met and gave him the half of coconut shell which is called a batok and whispered, “Do your best, my love!  Unveil your true power and we will be happy forever!”
Taking the shell from her he whispered, “My  kembang manis, my lovely flower, I will prove I am worthy of you!”

And as the sinking sun disappeared below the horizon he set to work.  Using the batok he filled it with sand and created mounds which he kept adding to creating hills.  He scooped up sand from the sides of Mount Bromo and ignoring his own father who threw burning rocks at him and yelled at him to stop.  He worked nonstop all through the night with amazing vigor and energy. By the time it was almost ready for the sun to rise he had created a sea of sand nine hundred and ninety yards deep and nine hundred and ninety yards wide, but he knew he it was not complete so he forced himself to work  quicker and harder.

The Trick

Dewi Jurangga’s father watched with eyes that could piece the densest and blackest darkness.  He was aghast to see that the son of Bromo would complete the sea of sand before sunrise and greatly feared he would have to fulfill his promise and give his daughter to him to be his bride.  He was furious and became even angrier as the son of Bromo looked like he would finish with time to spare and perhaps because of his fury he thought, or hoped, he heard the sound of a cock crow.

He was even angrier when he realized he hadn’t and it was his imagination, but  this gave him an idea. He said to himself,

“What if I imitated a crowing cock.  Yes, it would be cheating, but it would save my beloved daughter from marriage to the son of Bromo, a mere giant!  After all I am a powerful and mighty giant who is the King of the Holy Mountain. I am semi-divine and can do anything! ”

Turned to Stone

Therefore, he called out, imitating the crowing of a cock and immediately he was answered by one in a nearby village.

The son of Bromo was full of despair because he was unaware of the trick being played on him and thought the first cock had crowed before sunrise and knew his task was not quite finished.  Angily, he threw the batok and it landed on a mound and became a mountain that became known as the Mount Batok.

Then, behind him he heard a terrifying scream and turning and watched in horror as Dewi Jurangga, his beloved turned to stone before his eyes changing into a mountain that people called Kembang.

“Kembang Manis – lovely flower! All of my work has been for nought!”

he cried as he looked into her dark eyes and saw them glaze to stone.  She could not answer him as her mouth froze solid and with those last words he too turned to stone just as he had been warned becoming a mountain known as the Segarawedi.

However, the father of Dewi Jurangga was so frightened of the punishment of Brahma for the turning to stone of his warden and so sad that he had been the cause his own daughter becoming petrified, that he fled to the deepest regions of the earth below the Holy Mountain.  There he sits to this day contemplating how his own foolish selfishness caused two young lives to be so cruelly and terribly ruined. As he thinks on this, every now and then he lets out a sigh which rises to the top of the mountain and escapes into the beautiful blue sky like a white plume.

One Thousand Times One Thousand Years

There he must sit and sigh for one thousand times one thousand years  until Mount Bromo is sunk beneath the earth and the sea of sand no more.  Then and only then, will the spell of the petrification placed on Dewi Jurangga and the son of Bromo be lifted and they return to their original form.  Let us all pray that when that happens the gods smile upon them and they find eternal love and happiness together.

© 12/07/2016 zteve t evans

References, Attributions and Further Reading

Copyright zteve t evans

Petrification Myths: The Curse of Yonder Mountain

This is a retelling of a Spanish  fairy tale from Catalonia called The Water of Life that tells how a brave and plucky girl saves her three brothers after they have been turned to stone by a magical spell.  A version appeared in in Cuentos Populars Catalans (1885) a collection of D. Francisco de Sales Maspons y Labrós and was included by Andrew Lang in The Pink Fairy Book (1897).

The Dream Palace

The story begins in a small cottage there lived together three brothers and one sister. They all loved each other dearly and were very happy together but they were all dreamers spending much of their time daydreaming from dawn to dusk.  Then one day the eldest brother suddenly jumped up and said to the others, “Perhaps if we all work hard we can make some money and become rich enough to build a palace for us all to live in.” Both his younger brothers and his sister all jumped up and agreed saying, “Yes, that is a wonderful dream.  That is what we will!”

And indeed they did work hard and they made lots of money and grew very rich and they built themselves a beautiful palace in which they lived happily together.  The palace was a wonder and many people traveled from miles around to have look and see. Everyone agreed it indeed was most beautiful and none could find any faults at all with it.

The Old Woman

Then an old woman came to have a look around with the other sightseers.  While everyone was saying how splendid and wonderful the palace was she suddenly declared in a loud voice, “It is a most wonderful palace, but there is something that it lacks!”

“And what may that be?” asked the eldest brother perplexed and a little hurt.

“Why it needs a church, of course!” she replied in answer.

When the three brothers and their sister heard this they all set about with great energy working hard and earning more money which they used to build a church that was as big and splendid as the palace.  When they had finished people came from miles around to see the wonderful palace and the splendid church with their beautiful gardens and wide spacious halls.   Everyone agreed both buildings were the most magnificent they had ever seen.

The Old Man

Then, one day an old man who was visiting and looking around suddenly spoke up saying, “Well, of course both buildings are very beautiful and splendid but it is still lacking.”

“And what is it lacking?” asked the three brothers and their sister together.

“Why it lacks three treasures; a jug full of the water of life, the scent of the flowers from the tree of beauty and the talking bird,” replied the old man.

“And where can we find these three treasures?” they asked him earnestly.

The old man turned and pointed and said,  “Go to Yonder Mountain that is beyond the horizon and you will find what you seek there, but beware of the curse!”   This last alarmed the sister who demanded to know what the curse was.   The old man only smiled, bowed politely, said farewell and began walking home.   Looking back over his shoulder he said, “Mind the curse!”

“Right, I will go to the  Yonder Mountain and bring back the water of life, a flowering branch from the tree of beauty that we can plant and the talking bird,” said the eldest brother.  At this his sister froze and a darkness came into her mind and she looked inside herself for a moment and then said,   “How shall we ever know if you suffer some evil?”  

“Well, I had not thought about that, but you are right,” he replied.

So the three brothers and their sister followed the old man to his home and their sister said to him, “My eldest brother wants to go to Yonder Mountain to bring back the water of life,  a flowering branch from the tree of beauty and the talking bird, to complete the perfection of our palace.  What is the curse you talk of and you tell us how we will know if something evil happens to him?”

The old man took out a knife and gave it to them saying,  “I do not know what the curse is I have never been there but there, but I will give you this.  You must keep this very carefully and when you see the blade is clear then all is good.  Now listen, if you see the blade has turned to a blood red then that is the sign that evil has taken him.”

The Eldest Brother

The brothers and their sister thanked him and promised to keep it safe.  The eldest brother said his goodbyes and set off on his journey Yonder Mountain where he hoped to find all the treasures that their palace lacked.   He walked for many, many days and still the mountain did not seem to be any nearer.   As he was walking along he met a giant and stopped and said, “Please can you tell how much further Yonder Mountain is?”

The giant looked at him sternly and said, “And may I ask why you would want to go all the way their?”

“Why I am seeking the water of life, a branch from the tree of beauty and the talking bird,” replied the eldest.

The giant looked down at him and with all seriousness said,

“Many folk have passed this way seeking those precious treasures and not one has ever returned.  If you want to find them and bring them back you must listen to my words and obey them.  This path, though straight and narrow, will take you all the way to the top of the mountain.  When you arrive at the bottom of the mountain the path will begin to climb upwards and you must continue on and you will pass through stony ground.  As you walk up the path you will see many large stones and boulders all along the way on both sides.  The further you go the more there will be.   You must carry on walking but as you go you will think you hear, laughing, giggling and sniggering coming from all around you.  The further you go the louder and more intense the laughter will become.  It is the stones that are mocking you, but you must not heed them at all.  You must concentrate on walking straight ahead until you reach the top.  If you pay the slightest bit of attention to them, if you heed them at all, you, yourself will become one of them.”

So the eldest thanked the giant for his advice and continued along the path.  He walked many, many, miles before he at last reached the bottom of the mountain.   Following the path up the slopes he began to notice many large stones and boulders strewn all along the way either side of the path.  Nevertheless, he continued along his way and every so often he thought he heard someone snigger, or giggle behind him.  Remembering what the giant had told him he kept his eyes to the path in front and continued along it.  The further he got the louder the giggling and snickering became until it became an uproar of laughter.  Now feeling frightened he stooped to pick up a stone and as he turned to throw it he experienced his arm suddenly stiffen and his body turn completely rigid as he became one of the laughing, giggling stones.

Faraway back at the palace his sister was pacing up and down worrying about her brother and hoping he was on his way home.  Suddenly a terrible feeling of dread came over her and a darkness filled her mind and for a second she froze.  Recovering herself, she quickly she went to the knife and to her horror saw the blade had turned blood red and she cried out calling her brothers to her.  They clustered around and seeing the blade knew something evil had happened to their brother.  The next eldest then stepped forward resolutely and said,  “It is my duty to go an find our brother and bring him back if I can, along with the three treasures!”  

The Next Eldest Brother

Although his sister protested he left home and walked along the same path his brother had taken heading for the mountain.  He walked for many, many days but the mountain did not appear to be any nearer.  At last he met a giant and he asked him if he had seen his brother and told him of his quest.

“Yes, I have seen him pass this way.  He went along the path to Yonder Mountain but I have not seen him return.  I am afraid he must have got caught in the spell,”  replied the giant and explained about the curse that lay along the mountain path.

“If that is so, what is there that I can do to release him from the spell and bring back the water of life, a branch from the tree of beauty and the talking bird?”  asked the second eldest.

The giant looked down at him sternly and then said,

This path will take you all the way to the top of the mountain.  When you arrive at the bottom of the mountain the path will begin to climb upwards and you must continue on.  As you walk you pass through stony ground and will see many large stones and boulders all along the way on both sides.  The further you go the more there will be.   You must carry on walking but as you go you will think you hear, laughing, giggling and sniggering coming from all around you.  The further you go the louder and more intense the laughter will become.  It is the stones that are mocking you but you must not heed them at all.  You must concentrate on walking straight ahead until you reach the top. Do not turn, do not look, do not listen!  If you pay the slightest bit of attention to them, if you heed them at all, you, yourself will become one of them.  If you do not heed them you will reach the top and attain your heart’s desire.”

Thanking the giant for his advice the second eldest brother set out along the path to the mountain.   He walked for many, many miles until he came to the foot of the mountain.  He looked along the path and he saw it winding upwards around the mountain so he followed on.  As he followed the path upwards he noticed there were many large stones and boulders strewn on both sides of the path, but continued on his way.  Every now and then he thought he heard a snigger and someone giggling but he set his mind on his task and carried on trying to ignore it.  The further he went the louder the giggling became and soon all around him the  stones rang with raucous laughter so loud he could barely stand it but he heeded what the giant said and carried on.  As he passed the place where his brother had reached he thought he heard his voice mixed in with all the giggling and chuckling and he turned to see if he was there and instantly became one of the stones.

As this happened his sister had been pacing up and down in the palace with a growing feeling of dread and her mind filled with darkness and for a second she froze.  Then taking back control of herself she ran to the knife to see what the blade told her.  To her shock and horror it appeared blood red and she called out to her remaining brother who ran to see what was the matter.   When he saw the blood red blade he said, “I must go and find my brothers and bring back the treasures!”

The Youngest Brother

His sister protested many times but he would not be held back  and leaving his her alone he started out and walked for many, many days towards Yonder Mountain which never seemed to get any nearer.  Along the way he met a giant and stopped to ask him if he had seen anything of his brothers and told him of the quest for the treasures.

“Yes, I have seen them pass by and they have never yet returned.  I fear the spell of the mountain has taken them!” the giant told him.

“How can I set them free and bring back the water of life, a branch from the tree of beauty and the talking bird?” asked the youngest brother.

The giant looked down sternly and said,

This path will take you all the way to the top of the mountain.  When you arrive at the bottom of the mountain the path will begin to climb upwards and you must continue on.  As you walk you will pass through stony ground and will see many large stones and boulders all along the way on both sides.  The further you go the more there will be. You must carry on walking but as you go you will think you hear, laughing, giggling and sniggering coming from all around you.  The further you go the louder and more intense the laughter will become.  It is the stones that are mocking you but you must not heed them at all.  You must concentrate on walking straight ahead until you reach the top. Do not turn, do not look, do not listen!  If you pay the slightest bit of attention to them, if you heed them at all, you, yourself will become one of them.  If you do not heed them you will reach the top and find your heart’s desire.”

So the youngest brother thanked the giant for his advice and continued along the path until he reached the foot of the mountain.  He looked up the steep winding way and saw lots of large stones and boulders strewn either side of the path.  Remembering the giant’s warning he walked steadfastly up the path.   The further he walked the more stones he saw and as he walked he thought he heard whispering and then sniggering and giggling. Ignoring the sounds he walked on and on.  The further he went the louder the laughter and mocking became but he continued on passing the place where his eldest brother had reached and then beyond where the second eldest brother had reached.  He passed beyond that place and just as he thought he would reach the top of the mountain a crescendo of laughter peeled from all around.  Thinking he heard his brothers laughing behind him he turned expecting to them and the spell took him and he joined them as one of the stones.

The Sister seeks her Brothers

All this time his sister had been alone and pacing up and down in the palace praying that her brothers would return safely.  She hoped they would bring back the objects of their quest, but she would have been more than happy just to have them back without them.   As she paced up and down she was suddenly seized by a terrible dread and a darkness entered her mind and she froze for an instant.   Shaking off the fear she took control of herself and ran to the knife and saw to her horror it had turned blood red.  She gritted her teeth and despite her fear and the danger,  said, “Now I will go and find my brothers and bring them all back with the water of life, the branch from the tree of beauty and the talking bird.”

With that she set off along the path to Yonder Mountain.  She walked and walked for many days and still the mountain seemed no nearer.  She came across a giant and stopped and asked him if he had seen her three brothers and explained the quest to him. The giant told her exactly as he had told her brothers,

“This path will take you all the way to the top of the mountain.  When you arrive at the bottom of the mountain the path will begin to climb upwards and you must continue on.  As you walk up the path it will take you through stony ground and you will see many large stones and boulders all along the way on both sides.  The further you go the more there will be.   You must carry on walking but as you go you will think you hear, laughing, giggling and sniggering coming from all around you.  The further you go the louder and more intense the laughter will become.  It is the stones that are mocking you but you must not heed them at all.  You must concentrate on walking straight ahead until you reach the top. Do not turn, do not look, do not list!  If you pay the slightest bit of attention to them, if you heed them at all you, yourself will become one of them.  If you do not heed them you will reach the top and you will attain everything your heart desires.   Remember well what I say!”

Thanking him for his advice she set off along the path to reach the mountain.  When she came to the foot of the mountain she looked up along the winding path.  She saw the many, many, large stones and boulders strewn all alongside it and remembered the giants warning.  Keeping her mind set and her her eyes fixed straight ahead she made her way up the path through the stony ground.   As she walked she heard, whispering, but she kept her mind fixed and walked on.  She heard giggling and sniggering from all around her but she kept looking straight ahead with her mind rigid on her goal and walked on.  She walked past the places where her brothers were turned to stone and a great barrage of mocking laughter echoed all around her.   In that laughter she heard her brothers voices calling.  She clenched her fists and set her mind and kept her eyes fixed straight ahead.  Despite her fear she made it to the top of the mountain and the clamor died away.

The Top of the Mountain

To her disappointment there was no sign of her brothers, nevertheless, she was greatly relieved.  Looking around she saw a jug standing by a small spring of clear water which was the pool of life.  Alongside the pool grew the tree of beauty and on one of its branches sat the talking bird.  At the bottom of the tree was a golden cage.  She took the jug and filled it with water and then managed to coax the talking bird from the tree and into the cage.  Then she broke a flowering branch from the tree of beauty.  With no sign of her brothers and all the items required to make the palace complete now attained she decide it would best for her to  honor them by returning home with the treasures.

There was no laughter now as she walked down the hill.  As she walked carrying her load, drops of the water of life splashed from the jug and fell on some of the stones,  These immediately sprang up turning into young men and women.  They all crowded around her giving her thanks.  Seeing that this had broken their spell she sprinkled water from the jug all over the stones fetching more and more, as more people were freed from the spell of the stones.  Soon there was a great company of young men and maidens following her down the mountain path.  Among them she found her brothers and never was there a more joyful reunion.

The Girl who Broke the Curse

Together again the brothers with their sister walked the long walk back to home carrying all of the items that would make their palace complete.  As soon as they got back they planted the branch from the tree of beauty and watered it with the water of life.  It quickly grew into a flowering tree whose scent filled the gardens and gave everlasting beauty to those who breathed it.  Then they placed the talking bird in its branches and the perfection of their palace was complete.  Once again word of the splendor of their palace spread far and wide.  People traveled from far and wide and many distant lands to see it and enjoy its perfection.  However, mostly they came to see and meet the brave and remarkable girl who had won the three treasures, saved her brothers and broke the Curse of Yonder Mountain.

© 12/07/2016 zteve t evans

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Copyright zteve t evans

 

Petrification Myths: Malin Kundang of Sumatra, Indonesia

Petrifaction myths and legends appear in human cultures all around the world.  Very often they carry a warning or are the result of a punishment. In many cases they can be either inspired by a geological feature such as a rock formation or the name given to the feature is inspired by folklore.  Presented next is a retelling of a folktale from Sumatra, Indonesia that carries an important warning about how grown up children should respect their mother.

Malin Kundang

The story begins in a poor fishing village on the coast of Sumatra where a poor widow struggled to bring up her young son whom she had named Malin Kundang.  They existed on a meager living scraped from fishing.  Nevertheless the mother loved her son very much and worked hard to give him the best that she could.   Thanks to her hard work, love and dedication Malin grew into a healthy and clever boy who was always willing to help his mother to earn some money.  However, no matter how hard they worked they could not escape poverty.

One day Malin had an idea and went to his mother and. said,

“Mother, if I stay here I will never have a life.  I don’t want to spend all my life in poverty and I want to be a rich and successful man. What would you say if I told you I wanted to leave the village and sail away to find my fortune?”

Although his mother was devastated at the thought of her only son leaving her alone she swallowed her bitter tears and told him,

“My son, If that us your heart’s desire I cannot stop you.  Although it breaks my heart that you are leaving I will pray that you find happiness and your heart’s desire, but promise me that when you have found every thing that you dream of you will not forget me and come home again to your mother who will be waiting patiently for your return.”

Malin then told his mother he did indeed want to leave which broke her heart.  In the morning he went down to the harbor and found a ship that would take him on a one of the crew.  His mother came and bid him farewell and after embracing him for a long time said,

“Farewell my son, take good care.  I will pray for you, but I fear you will forget me!”

Then he told his mother,

“You take good care of yourself mother!  I promise I will keep in touch and will not forget you and return as soon as I can.”

Again his mother embraced him tightly not wanting to let go until finally he turned away and walked up the gangplank onto the ship.  She watched as the ship carrying her only son slid silently over the horizon into the rising sun and then returned to her home alone.

His Mother’s Vigil

Three months passed and although Malin’s mother prayed every night and every morning for her son she received not a single word or token from him.  The months turned to years and his mother still prayed day and night for her son’s safety and that he would find his heart’s desire.  Every morning and every evening she would go down to the harbor to see what new ships had come hoping that one would bring her son back to her and would stand in silent prayer looking out over the horizon..

Several years passed in this way and one morning as she stood looking out to sea she was surprised to see an unusually big ship sail out of the blue and dock in the harbor at the point where she held her lonely vigil.

Malin Returns

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By The original uploader was Geoethno at German Wikipedia (Original text: Amsterdam, Buffa) (Van de Velde: Gezigten uit Neerlands Indie) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

When the ship was tied securely to the dock she saw a handsome, young man in rich clothing disembark from the ship with a beautiful young woman on his arm.  Both were dressed in the finest clothes and exuded an aura of wealth.  Behind them followed many servants and bodyguards and everyone could see that this fine young couple were wealthy and important people.  Malin’s mother looked in surprise and although her eyes had grown weak and weary from crying for her son she recognized him despite this and saw through the finery the young man wore.  She knew this was her son and knew she could not be wrong.  Excitedly she ran up to to him and threw her arms around his neck crying,

“Malin, Malin, my beloved son you gave come back to me!”

Shock and disappointment overcame her as the young man coldly stared straight ahead and showed no response whatsoever.

“I have prayed day and night for you and missed you so much and now my prayers are answered and you have returned to me!”

Rejection

In truth, Malin felt embarrassment at the sight of this poor old woman dressed in rags.  He thought of his own wealth and fine clothes, he thought of all his servants and bodyguards and he thought of the beautiful young woman on his arm. Although he knew she was his mother he felt ashamed and embarrassed at her poverty and his own humble origins and did not want to let on about his past life to his companion.

Roughly, he thrust his mother away and glared coldly at her saying,

“You are not my mother!  My mother would never wear such poor and ragged clothes.  I don’t know you, go way!”

Shocked and distressed his mother stepped back, sobbing and said,

“Malin, I am your mother stop teasing me!  I have waited so long to see you again you must know me!”

But Malin stared coldly and dispassionately ahead with his face fixed and his eyes cold. Turning to one of his bodyguards he said,

Guard, take this ragged old beggar woman out of my sight!  Give her some money to be rid of her!”

And the guard grasped the old lady by her arm and dragged her roughly away, all the time she was crying out,

“Malin!  Oh Malin my long lost son! Why do you treat me so cruelly?”

Mail ignored his mother’s pleas and ordered the ship to make ready to sail.  He and his beautiful lady returned to the ship which set sail and sailed stately out of the harbor.

Poor Malin’s mother was left distraught and sobbing upon the harbor as the ship sailing upon a calm and quiet sea and disappeared over the horizon.  Anguish and hurt coursed through her body which turned to anger and she fell upon her knees and prayed,

“Dear God, if that young man was not my son bless him with a safe journey and a safe return home.  If he was Malin, my son, I curse him that as soon as he sets foot on land that he may turn to stone.”

So it was that beyond the horizon the ship ran into a storm that whipped the calm and quiet sea into a frenzy.  As thunder rolled and lightning flashed and the rain lashed down the ship was taken by the wild waves and was shipwrecked.  Malin struggled against the giant waves but eventually made it to a beach called Air Manis, near Padang, West Sumatra.

Turned to Stone

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The Malin Kundang Stone – By Crisco 1492 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

The God, who sees and hears all looked down.  As Malin stepped upon the land he felt his entire body begin to stiffen and he fell forward on to his knees as of one begging for mercy and then fell forward again in supplication to the Divine.  In that position his entire body turned into stone and can be seen to this day on a beach at Pantai Air Manis, Padang, and is called the Malin Kundang Stone.  It is said to exist as testament to the punishment that will be meted out to those who choose to reject their own mother.

© 26/07/2017 zteve t evans

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Copyright July 26th, 2017 zteve t evans

Petrification Myths: The Children of Waitaiki

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By Arthur James Iles (1870 – 1943) – Photographer (New Zealander) Born in Oamaru, New Zealand. Dead in Rotorua, New Zealand. Details of artist on Google Art Project [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Poutini

In the myths and legends of the Ngai Tahu people who live on Te Waipounamu also known as the South Island of New Zealand, Poutini was a water spirit they called a Taniwha.  Poutini was the protector of the people and was also the guardian of several types of mineral including nephrite jade, serpentine, and bowenite and often known collectively as greenstone today.  The Ngai Tahu people called the greenstone, Pounamu and it was a highly prized mineral in their culture used for carving jewelry and ornaments in particular. They believed that all things had a life force or essence they called mauri and Poutini was the guardian of the life force of this special mineral.

Waitaiki

Poutini was believed to have his home in the wild seas off the West Coast of the South Island, or “Te Tai o Poutini”.  There was once a time when he would roam far from home. One day while he was basking in the warm waters off Tuhua, which is now known as Mayor Island which lies off the Bay of Plenty of the North Island, he saw the most beautiful woman he had ever seen in his life and he wanted her for himself.  Without further thought, he lunged forward and grabbed her and carried her off to the mainland. The woman’s name was Waitaiki and she was married to a mighty chief named Tama-ahua who was skilled in the magical arts and the ways of the world of the spirits.  As soon as he realized his wife had been kidnapped he threw a magical dart high into the air.  The dart pointed the way and Tama-ahua paddled his canoe across the sea following the dart.

Tama-ahua

Meanwhile, Poutini had reached the mainland and Waitaiki was chilled through to the bone.  He lit a fire to warm her but he hearing Tama-ahua coming he immediately took up Waitaiki and carried her across country with Tama-ahua hard on his trail.  The chase continued but every now and then Poutini was forced to stop to light a fire to warm his shivering captive.  Each place he stopped at to light a fire became an important source of Pounamu.

The Tears of Waitaiki

With Tama-ahua hot on the trail Poutini carried Waitaiki southward to Piopiotahi which is now called Milford Sound. All this time poor Waitaiki was weeping, frightened and very, very cold and she begged and begged Poutini to take her home.   Poutini would not listen and was still inflamed with lust for her and carried her up the Arahura River to its headwaters hoping to lose his pursuer.  However, Tama-ahua was still being guided by his magical dart and whichever way Poutini went trying to throw Tama-ahua off his trail the dart pointed the way.  It was only a matter of time before Tama-ahua caught up.  When he found his wife’s tears that she had shed that had turned to stone he redoubled his efforts in anger. The Ngai Tahu people find these petrified tears of Waitaiki and call it Tangiwai  which means tears that come from great sorrow.  They are clear like glass but are found in various shades and are also called Bowenite.

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By Vassil (Own work) [CC0], via Wikimedia Commons

Turned to Pounamu

Realising Poutini had changed direction he followed his dart along the seashore to the Arahura River.  He followed the river upstream until nightfall and decided to stop and rest for the night so that he could be strong and as fresh as possible for the final confrontation with Poutini being confident he would catch up with him the next day.
Poutini knew that Tama-ahua was closing in on him and while carrying Waitiki he could not go any faster and he grew afraid.  He feared the strength and courage of Tama-ahua and feared his magic but vowed he would never give up Waitaiki. He made up his mind that if he could not have her no one else would.   Summoning up his own magical powers he changed Waitaiki into his own essence which was the same as that of Pounamu and placed her on the river’s bed.

The Children of Waitaiki

Then he sneaked past Tama-ahua while he was asleep and headed back downstream towards the sea.  When Tama-ahua awoke he followed the river upstream until he came to the headwaters where he expected to find Poutini, but he had gone.  Looking around Tama-ahua found Waitiki laid out on the riverbed.  Her body was hard and cold and had  been turned into the greenstone that the Ngai Tahu people call the Mother of Pounamu.  To them, her children were the fragments that break off her as the river washed over her and were carried down to the sea and she became the motherlode of all of the pounamu of the Arahura River.

The Tangi of Tama-ahua

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By Captain Richard Aldworth Oliver delt. Dickinson & Co. lith. [London, 1852] [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

Poutini went back home where he still swims along the coast and remains the guardian of pounamu.  As for Tama-ahua, overcome with grief he composed his Tangi which is a song of mourning.  He sang this with all his heart and soul and his voice is said to still resonate in the mountains today.

© 07/06/2016 zteve t evans

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Copyright June 7th, 2017 zteve t evans

Petrification Myths:  Coyote and the Legend People of Bryce Canyon

Petrification Myths: Coyote and the Legend People of Bryce Canyon

In the desert of southwest Utah in the United States of America is a remarkable place known as Bryce Canyon which many, many bizarre and colorful rock formations. The canyon is named after Ebenezer Bryce, a Mormon pioneer who settled in the area in 1874.  However, the Native American Paiute people of the region who were there long before the arrival of pioneers called it Angka-ku-wass-a-wits or red painted faces.

Bryce Canyon must surely be one of the most extraordinary natural places on earth.  It is a place where strange rock formations of yellow, orange and reddish brown that change hue as the light changes and fill the mind with many fantastical shapes and forms that appear grotesquely humanoid.

In geological terms, these columns are called hoodoos a term also used in witchcraft and the supernatural.  The Paiute people tell a very different story to the geologists but both explanations are really very extraordinary.   Presented first is a brief and simplified version of the geological explanation.  This is followed by a version of the traditional explanation given by the Paiute people who believed the columns were created when a mythical race called the Legend people were punished by their divine entity Coyote.

The Creation of the Landscape

First of all Bryce Canyon is not a canyon in geological terms.  It was created in a very different way to canyons which are created by weathering and the erosive action of rivers.   Instead, the Bryce landscape was created by a natural process called frost wedging which works over a great period of time to alter and recreate the entire landscape.  This process happens in Bryce Canyon because for most days of the year the temperature fluctuates to above freezing and drops to below zero in the course of a single day.

During daytime, seasonal snow melts and the water seeps into cracks and fractures in the rock and when it freezes at night it turns to ice and expands causing it to crack and fracture further and forcing sections of it apart making wedges into the rock forcing it apart.  This happens about 200 times a year in Bryce Canyon and an another process called frost heaving also comes into play forcing rocks upward from the bottom.   These two natural actions are supplemented by wind and rainwater which is naturally slightly acidic and this gently rounds off the rocks slowly dissolving the edges. And it is these natural processes that have combined to create the fantastical landscape of Bryce Canyon and it’s weird and wonderful hoodoos that are its main feature.  So that is a very quick and simplified precis of the scientific explanation but the Paiute people have another explanation

The Legend People of Bryce Canyon

According to Paiute legend and tradition millions of years before they appeared on earth there was another people who lived in the area called To-when-an-ung-wa or the Legend people.  In those days the land was said to be different being very green and verdant with streams and rivers of fresh clean running water.  Animals and birds were plentiful and the hoodoos were not yet created.

The Legend people took the form of giant animals, reptiles, and birds and in their land of plenty gave no thought to others who shared it with them.  They would drink up all the water and despoil what was left so others could not use.  They would eat and take all the nuts, fruits and berries leaving nothing for other creatures to survive the winter on.  They never gave a thought for the other animals and birds that shared the land which became less fertile and abundant.

Coyote

At last the animals and birds began to complain loudly about the inconsiderate and selfish behavior of the legend people and how carelessly and recklessly they despoiled all the fruits and good resources of the Earth.  One day the spirit they called Coyote heard them while he was out walking and went to see what was going on.  Coyote was angry at what he saw and decided to punish the Legend people.  He had a reputation for being a trickster which was well earned and he decided there and then he would trick the Legend people.

Coyote invited them to a great feast promising them they would be served the best food and drink they had ever been given.  The Legend people were always greedy for more food and drink and readily accepted the invitation.  They put on their best clothing and painted their faces red as was their custom at such occasions and went to the great feast of Coyote to eat their fill.

When they arrived they found the best food they had ever seen all laid out and ready for them to tuck into.  Coyote was watching and just as they were about to take the first bite of food he cast a spell.   Suddenly, one, by one they all began turning to stone.  Naturally, those not yet affected began to panic and tried to escape trying to climb over the ridge of the valley. They all pushed and pulled and scrambled over one another but there was no escape and gradually they all succumbed to the spell of Coyote.   It was a scene of madness, mayhem and sheer hell.  Soon their struggling ceased and all were turned into columns of stone, their bodies and faces rigid and paralyzed in their final act of standing, sitting, crawling,  climbing, running or whatever and there they have remained through the ages as a testament to their greed and selfishness.

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By Don Graham from Redlands, CA, USA – God bless it! (Ancestors, Bryce Canyon NP, UT 9-09) [CC BY-SA 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)%5D, via Wikimedia Commons

The Pauite People

When the Paiute people arrived they found the hoodoos and could see their red faces in the rock columns just as they were before they were petrified.  This is why they called the place Angka-ku-wass-a-wits, which means red painted faces and these are the hoodoos we see today in Bryce Canyon.  Some people today say their faces have been eroded so much over the centuries that they cannot be recognized and people will forget the story of the Legend people.  Those who can see know Coyote still wanders the wilderness and know he has not lost his power and they will not forget why he turned red painted faces to stone.

© 23/05/17 zteve t evans

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Copyright May 23rd, 2017 zteve t evans