Vortigern's Rule: The Assassination of King Constans

Image by by Matthew Paris – Public Domain

Vortigern and the Chaos  of Britain

According to the Regum Britanniae, or History of the Kings of Britain, written in about 1136, by Geoffrey of Monmouth, Vortigern was a 5th century King of the Britons. He was considered one of the most notoriously devious and immoral kings in British history. To be fair he was only doing behaving as his contemporaries behaved. It was a question of dog eat dog in those days with no quarter given or asked for. He was attributed with most of the blame for inviting the Anglo-Saxon war-leaders Hengist and  Horsa into Britain as his mercenaries, sowing the seeds for the eventual Anglo-Saxon takeover of much of England and the many years of war and strife that was to come.

This is a retelling of how Vortigern usurped the crown of Britain based on the works of Geoffrey of Monmouth. Although his work was once considered reasonably accurate it is now no longer seen as reliable by modern scholars.  Nevertheless his work does provide his own version of the history of Britain and its kings and still has its merits as a cultural product of its times and still wields considerable influence in many Arthurian creations in the modern times. This part of the story of the history of the island of Britain begins with the assassination of King Constantine and the succession of his son Constans.  It continues to reveal how Vortigern grabbed power and ends with the threat of war hanging over him and the arrival of Hengist and Horsa.

The  Assassination of  King Constantine

After King Constantine of Britain had been in power for ten years he was assassinated by a Pict who stabbed him in the back.  After his death the crown of Britain was greatly disputed. The legitimate successor to the throne was Contans, the eldest son of Constantine, but his father had placed him in a monastery.  Although he was unhappy with the monastic life he was not really interested or suited to being king.  The next oldest and second in line was Aurelius Ambrosius his younger brother and the third was the youngest brother whose name was Uther.  Some nobles favored Aurelius to rule while others preferred Uther.  It was finally agreed that both were too young and all were at a loss as to what to do.  

Vortigern Becomes Ambitious

Vortigern had his own ambitions and his own ideas on who should be King of the island of Britain. He preferred Costans knowing that he had little interest in ruling and lacked the necessary qualities and strength of character that a monarch of Britain would need to control and unite the nation. Furthermore, he knew that he had no desire to remain a monk all his life.  Vortigern reasoned that if he helped him escape the clutches of the monastery to become king he could easily manipulate him while all the time working towards his ultimate unspoken goal of taking the crown for himself.  To further his ends he offered to set the unhappy Constans free from the monastery and make him king if in return he would make him his chief adviser. 

Constans: The Puppet King

Constans agreed and left the monastery and  Vortigern took him to London to be crowned king.  The consent of the nobles or the people was never asked for or obtained. Inconveniently the recent death of Archbishop Guethelin meant there was no one else of sufficient authority and stature in the clergy to fulfill such an important role. Conveniently for Vortigern the only other person with sufficient governmental experience and authority to fulfill such a role was himself and he performed the coronation ceremony. 

Constans lacked any knowledge or experience of government and had little or no credibility with the nobles or the people.  He relied heavily on the experience and guile of Vortigern for advice making him the effective ruler of Britain in all but name.  With many of the more experienced nobles killed in the wars with the Picts there were few alive who could match his statecraft and experience and Vortigern was using these personal assets to further his own ambitions ruthlessly.  

The next part of his plan was to remove Constans from the throne and set himself upon it. As always he was patient and bided his time while always seeking ways to consolidate his power at home by clandestine means.  At the same time he secretly used his position to increase his influence with nearby countries. He persuaded King Constans to give him control of the Royal Treasure to keep it safe. The inexperienced king at his Chief Advisor’s request also gave him control of all of the fortified towns and cities of the realm after claiming a fictitious threat of foreign invasion was imminent.  As soon as he had control of the cities he replaced their rulers and governors with his own men ensuring total control over the major fortified population centres.

Vortigern’s Treachery

He then persuaded King Constans that he was in danger and needed more men in his bodyguard to protect him from assassination.  Constans, perhaps bearing in mind what had happened to his father and trusting fully in Vortigern gave his permission to hand pick his personal bodyguard.  This made it easy for Vortigern who told the king that he had received word that an alliance of Picts and Dacians were preparing to attack Britain. He also assured him he knew of some trustworthy Picts who were not involved in the plot and he advised they should be offered a place at his court to form his new bodyguard. They would be loyal to Constans and act as spies informing him on what their compatriots were plotting.  Despite his father having been assassinated by a Pict such was his trust and reliance on Vortigern that Constans agreed.

Vortigern’s real intention was not to protect the king but replace his loyal bodyguards with men of his own choosing whom he believed he could control.  He knew the Picts were quarrelsome and often indulged in heavy drinking and in such a state they were unruly but easily manipulated. He also knew full well that they would have no qualms about assassinating Constans if the seeds of the idea were sown carefully and the right conditions prevailed. Therefore, he was confident that if he set the stage right they would act out the part he planned and take the blame while he looked beyond suspicion and took the crown.

To bring his plan into action he sent messengers to Scotland seeking one hundred Pictish warriors whom he could install as the King’s household guard.  When the Picts arrived he made a great show of welcome.  He gave them expensive presents and a luxury table for them to dine from and he showed them more respect than he gave the King’s original bodyguard.  So pleased were they with his welcome of them they began to see him as their lord and master above King Constans, exactly as Vortigern had planned.

Soon they began to make songs revering Vortigern and belittling Constans.  In these they praised Vortigern as king suggesting Constans was unworthy. They sang these songs in the streets in full view of the public pleasing Vortigern greatly. The greater they praised him the more he praised them in return and bestowed greater favor upon them.  Soon the next stage of his plan was ready to put into action.

The Killing of King Constans

He waited until one day when the Picts were well and truly drunk and solemnly told them the day was coming when he would leave Britain.  Mournfully, he told them he did not want to go but could no longer afford to keep more than fifty men in his retinue. With that he feigned great sorrow and left them drinking to think about it. The Picts were sorry to hear this for Vortigern had been good to them.  They began to think about their own position and how that could change and one of them said,

“Why do we suffer this monk to live? Why do not we kill him, that Vortigern may enjoy his crown? Who is so fit to succeed as he? A man so generous to us is worthy to rule, and deserves all the honour and dignity that we can bestow upon him.” (1) 

After more drinking and such talk between one another they broke into the King’s bedchamber.  They killed him while he slept and then proudly presented his severed head to Vortigern. Putting on a great show of sorrow and tears, while really elated with joy, he ordered the assassins to be bound. Wasting no time he summoned the citizens of London to witness their execution for what he called their terrible crime.

Not all of Britain’s nobles were taken in by Vortigern’s show of false sorrow. Many suspected villainy but with no one left in Britain powerful enough to stop him Vortigern seized the crown.  In fear of their own lives and for the safety of the brothers Aurelius and Uther – the true heirs – they fled across the sea to Armorica.    The brothers were well treated by King Bude who educated and kept them in a manner befitting their royal blood.

As time passed his treason was at last discovered. The Picts were furious at the execution of their own people and constantly attacked and ravaged the border country.  Vortigern was at daily war with them and lost many of his best warriors keeping them at bay. 

The Threat of Aurelius

Over the years in Armorica, Aurelius Ambrosius and Uther were coming of age and sought revenge for the murder of their father and elder brother.  Aurelius, the elder of the two had built himself a formidable reputation on the continent as a war leader and was mustering an army to retake the crown of Britain.  He remembered how Vortigern had favoured the Picts and now he knew he had orchestrated their deaths to remove any witnesses. Now with his own star on the rise he was burning to avenge his father and elder brother and reclaim the crown of Britain.

Although Vortigern was now High King of the island of Britain his troubles were just beginning.  With the growing threat of Aurelius Ambrosius and Uther he began receiving reports of the building of a vast fleet and the mustering of a great army. His spies confirmed his fears that they were intent on taking back their inheritance.  Therefore an invasion force was expected to land at any time somewhere along the south coast of England.  

With the Picts making daily forays in the north of his realm he knew he was in trouble. Taking stock of the situation on both fronts he found he was desperately short of men at arms to defend the kingdom. Despite his military weakness he still had  his political guile and ruthlessness which he used to quell any opposition among his own war leaders. Nevertheless, these were dangerous times with the promise of worse to come but things were going to take an unexpected turn that he would at first welcome and then live to regret.   As the clouds of war were gathering on the northern and southern edges of his realm there appeared completely unexpectedly off the coast of Britain three long ships carrying a detachment of armed warriors from foreign parts. These warriors were under the command of two brothers named Hengist and Horsa and they came ashore at Kent.

To begin with the presence of these two brothers looked to be a welcome gift in nullifying the brothers Aurelius and Uther and countering the Picts and Vortigern welcomed. However, while he was ruthless and treacherous Hengist would prove to be a master beyond compare of deceit and treachery. Hengist also has had a beautiful daughter name Rowena who Vortigern would become obsessed with and marry. All the time across the sea in Armorica, Aurelius was preparing his revenge.

© 12/02/2020 zteve t evans

References, Attributions and Further Reading

Copyright February 12th, 2020 zteve t evans

Japanese Folktales: The Soul of the Mirror

Matsumoto Ichiyō (cropped) [Public domain]

The concept of animism where objects are believed to have a soul, spirit or consciousness is found in many religions, past and present around the world.  The following is a retelling of a story from The Romance of the Milky Way and Other Studies & Stories by Lafcadio Hearn that he called The Mirror Maid that features this idea.

The Mirror Maid

The story is set in Old Japan in the period of the Ashika Shōgunate.  When the sacred Temple of Ogawachi-Myōjin, at Minami-Isé fell into a state of disrepair,  Matsumura Hyōgo, the Shinto priest of the temple begged Lord Kitahataké who administered the district for funds for repairs.  Unfortunately due to war and other difficult circumstances Lord Kitahataké could not provide such funds. Therefore, Matsumura went to Kyōto and appealed to the great daimyō Hosokawa who had influence with the Shōgun.

Lord Hosokawa was sympathetic he could not authorize the funds without the permission of the Shōgun but promised to bring the problem to his attention.  He advised the state of the shrine would need to be investigated and an estimate of the expense and a plan of work would have to be provided. Therefore he warned that in might take considerable time and he advised Matsumura to remain in Kyōto while the matter was dealt with.  

Matsumura rented a house and sent for his family and servants. The house was situated in the old Kyōgoku quarter of the city and was old, imposing and rather daunting.  It had been unoccupied for some time and had a dark and inauspicious reputation.  Situated on the northeast side of the garden was a well in which several preceding tenants of the house had been found dead in its water.  Not surprisingly, an air of mystery and suspicion hung over the house and dark words were whispered about it. Matsumura took no notice of the reputation of the house and well.  Being a Shinto priest he had no fear of evil spirits and so he soon became settled and comfortable in his new residence.

The Well

In the summer there came a time of drought and no rain fell on Kyōto and the surrounding area for months.  The lakes, rivers and wells dried up and the land became as bare and as dry as a bone. The only well which still bore water in Kyōto and the surrounding area was the one situated in the garden of Matsumura which remained full to the brim.  

The water was cold and clear with a hint of blue but it was good and plentiful and always available.  People came from all parts of the city and surrounding area to beg for water. Matsumura allowed each and everyone to draw as much as they pleased.  Many people came to draw water but still the well remained full to the brim.

One morning  Matsumura had a shock.  The corpse of a young servant who had been sent to draw water by his master from the far side of the city was found floating in the well.  It was apparent he had been a fit and active young man and it was not thought likely he had slipped and fell into the water. 

Although Matsumura searched diligently he could find no clue as to how the young man could accidentally have drowned.  There was no sign of a struggle or reason to believe he had been deliberately murdered either. Furthermore, after speaking to his master and family he could find no reason for such a young man to commit suicide.  His imagination exhausted he remembered the dark reputation of the house and began to suspect some unknown evil had manifest.

The Maid in the Well

Matsumura stood looking at the well wondering what to do.  He thought perhaps he should have a fence built around it to stop people going near for their own protection.  As he mulled over these thoughts he became aware of a sudden movement in the water which startled him. It was as if there was some living thing in the water moving around under water.  

The movement stopped and as the ripples settled he became aware that there was the face of a young woman in the water.  She appeared to be around nineteen or twenty years of age and was very beautiful and was engaged in the activity of coloring her lips red as was the practice of females in those times.  At first he could only see her face in profile and she seemed unaware or unconcerned by him watching.  Slowly she turned her head to face him and as she did she smiled at him looking deep into his eyes.

Matsumura was frozen to the spot and began to experience a strange shock that shot through his heart.  He became dizzy as if intoxicated with wine and all he could see was that strange, smiling, face while all around was darkness.  Very white and very beautiful was the face, as white and as beautiful as the moon. 

It seemed to grow whiter and even more beautiful as he stared.  He became aware with sudden alarm that he was being drawn down, lower and lower, into the darkness towards that face and those red lips. Desperately he tried to master himself and break the spell and with one last supreme effort he succeeded to close his eyes shutting out the vision. 

When he opened his eyes again he found he was on his knees with his face close to the surface of the water. One more second and he would have suffered the same fate as the servant who had been drowned.  He was glad to find the light had returned and went back to the house. Understanding the danger from the well he ordered that it be fenced in and no one should be allowed near.

Rain Storm

A few days later the drought was broken by a massive thunderstorm.  While lightning flashed and thunder roared rain fell in torrents on the parched city and land.  For three days and three nights the rain fell hard and fast. The river rose higher than it had ever risen before and carried more force than it had ever carried before.  All along its course bridges were overpowered and washed away and along its banks water burst across the land flooding fields and homes.

On the third night of the raging storm, at the Hour of the Ox, there came a knocking on Matsumura’s door and the voice of a woman could be heard outside begging to be let in.

The Appearance of Yayoi

Matsumoto Ichiyō (cropped) [Public domain]

The experience Matsumura had suffered by the well immediately came to his mind and he forbade his servants to answer the door. Instead he went himself to stand by the door and called out,  “Who can it be who is out on a night like this and rapping at my door?”

A female voice answered, “I beg your pardon and ask for your forgiveness. My name isYayoi and I have something that is of great importance that I must say to Matsumura Hyōgo and no one else. Please, I beg of you to let me in that I may deliver my message .”

Matsumura opened the door a little and looked out.  He saw the same beautiful female face that he had seen smiling up at him from the water in the well.  Now she was not smiling but had a sad forlorn expression.

“You cannot come in,” he told her sternly, “You are not human, you are a creature from the well.  Why do you drown and kill innocent people?”

To the surprise of Matsumura she answered in a musical voice like the tinkling of rare and precious jewels which he had never heard before.  She said, 

“This is exactly the matter that I wish to talk to you about for I have never wanted to harm humans. Long ago in the most ancient of days a an evil dragon became the Master of the Well which is why it was always full. Long ago I fell in the well.  He was more powerful than I and he made me to his bidding, forcing me to lure people to their deaths in the well.  

However, time does not stand still and things change according to the will of the gods.  The Heavenly Ruler has ordained that the dragon must leave the well. He will dwell in the lake in the province of Shinshū known as Torii-no-Iké and will never again return to this city.  He left for his new home tonight which is why I am now free to beg for your compassion your aid.

I ask that you have your servants search the well. They will now find it dry with the departure of the dragon despite the rain .  At the bottom of the well you will find my body. I urge that you do this as soon as possible and you can be sure that for your compliance you shall enjoy my benevolence and reward.”

With her last words she vanished before his eyes.

The Mirror

The storm finally died out just before dawn.  As soon as it was light Matsumura ordered his servants to search the well which was dry just as Yayoi had said it would be.  Although they searched they found no body. All they found were a few very old hair ornaments such as was used by women in ancient times and a mirror.  The mirror was of curious style and shape but had become encrusted with grime and mud. 

The absence of a body puzzled Matusmura to begin with but then he realized his error.  He remembered that mirrors are weird things with weird properties and every mirror had a soul that was its own and the soul of a mirror was female.

Carefully he cleaned it up treating it with great care and reverence.  When he had cleaned all the encrusted grime from it he saw that it was indeed a rare and beautifully made piece of very ancient origin.  On its handle and back were beautiful designs and some lettering some of which he could not understand but he could make out some letters that appeared to spell out  “third month, third day” appearing to relate to a date.  

He realized that in years gone by the third month was the Month of Increase and called Yayoi. Then he remembered that the third day of the third month was the Festival that was still called Yayoi-no-sekku the creature from the well had called herself Yayoi.  This led him to the conclusion that the ghostly creature from the well was actually the Soul of the Mirror.

With this concluded he treated the mirror with even more reverence and care having it carefully cleaned again and re-silvered so that it was like new.  He ordered a case to be made using fine wood and quality craftsmanship to make and decorate it. Then he prepared a special room to keep it in and carefully carried it there and put it in its designated place of honour.   That evening as he sat before the box contemplating upon the recent events Yayoi appeared before him.

The Soul of the Mirror

He was stunned that she looked even more beautiful than before but now there was a softness to her light like that of a summer moon.  She greeted him courteously and respectfully and said in her sweet, musical voice, 

“I have come to thank you for saving me from an eternity of sorrow and loneliness.  I can confirm that you are indeed correct in thinking that I am some kind of spirit.  Yes, I am the Spirit of the Mirror – its very soul as you have guessed.

During the rule of the Emperor Saimei many long centuries ago I was brought to this residence from Kudara. Here I dwelt until the rule of the Emperor Saga and was presented to the august Lady Kamo, Naishinnō of the Imperial Court. From that time I became an heirloom of the House of Fuji-wara until the time of the period of Hōgen.  During the period of the great war I laid forgotten for many, many years.

In those days the Master of the Well was an evil dragon.  He had once lived in a lake that once covered this whole area.   A government order came for the lake to be filled in to make land for the building of houses.  The dragon could not stop the lake being filled in and took up residence in this well.  

After I had fallen in I was helpless against his power and he forced me to lure people to their deaths.  Now that the great god has ordained he must take up residence in a far away lake I am free.

Nevertheless,  I have one last favour to ask of you.  With all my heart I beg that you offer me to the Shōgun, the Lord Yoshimasa. By descent he is related to my former possessors and it would be fitting I should return to him as he is their heir.

If you would do this great kindness for me – it is the last I shall ask – it will bring you great good fortune.

Now I have to give you a warning.  This residence is in danger and you must evacuate the premises as soon as possible. Tomorrow this house will be totally destroyed.”  

The Prediction Fulfilled

As soon as Yayoi had finished speaking she bowed and vanished. Matsumura heeded the warning and moved his family and servant to another house in a distant part of the city immediately.  The next day a violent storm arose and lightning struck his former residence several times destroying it completely. The rain fell in torrents and washed away the remnants of the shattered building but Matsumura and his family were safe.

Soon after Matsumura asked for an audience with the Shōgun Yoshimasa and was fortunate to be granted one.  This gave him the opportunity to present the mirror to the great lord and to give him a written account of the marvellous history of the august piece. The Shōgun was delighted with this ancient gift and was intrigued by its strange history.  In gratitude he gave Matsumura many expensive presents and also allotted ample money for the refurbishment of the Temple of Ogawachi-Myōjin making the prediction of Yayoi, the Soul of the Mirror come true.

© 05/02/2020 zteve t evans

References, Attributions and Further Reading

Copyright February 5th, 2020 zteve t evans

Bats in Myth, Legend and Folklore from Around the World

Original photo: אורן פלס Oren Peles Derivative work: User:MathKnight [CC BY 2.5 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)]

This article was first published on #FolkloreThurday.com as Bat Myths and Folktales from Around the World by zteve t evans on 31st October 2019

Strange Creatures

Bats feature in many myths, legends and folklore from diverse cultures around the world, and are often associated with darkness, death and the supernatural. Unquestionably, they are strange creatures, appearing as half animal and half bird, like something from a nightmare world. From this duality and strangeness evolved a reputation of duplicity and threat, appearing as neither one thing nor the other. In fact they are mammals of the scientific order Chiroptera, meaning “hand wing” in ancient Greek, because their forelimbs have become adapted to be wings. Do they really deserve this sinister reputation, or do they play a more important role in the world than feeding the dark human fascination for the spooky and the supernatural?

Presented here are different viewpoints from around the world, followed by a short look at the real significance of bats to humankind.

 Aesop’s Fables: The Bat and the Weasel

The duality of bats is mentioned in one of Aesop’s Fables, which tells how a bat fell to the ground and was pounced on by a weasel. The bat begged to be spared but the weasel insisted that he could not do that because he was an enemy of all birds. The bat said, “Well look at me.  I am a mouse, not a bird!” The weasel looked at the bat and agreed it was a mouse and released it. A little later the same bat was caught by another weasel and begged for mercy. The weasel replied, “No, I never let mice go!” The bat said, “Well, look closely at me.  I am a bird.  See my wings.” The weasel replied, “Well, so you are!” and let the bat go.

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Greek Mythology: Cassandra – the Gift and the Curse of Apollo

Cassandra by Evelyn De Morgan [Public domain] (cropped)

Cassandra

In Greek mythology, Cassandra was a prophetess who could accurately foretell the future but was never believed.  This talent had been a gift from the god Apollo but when she rejected his advances he cursed her so that her predictions were never believed. She was also known as Kassandra and occasionally Alexandra.   Her parents were King Priam and Queen Hecuba of Troy and she had a twin brother named Helenus. Paris, whose abduction of Helen of Sparta helped spark the Trojan War was one of her brothers, as was the Trojan hero and war leader Hector. According to legend although very beautiful and intelligent she was regarded as being insane.

The Gift and the Curse

She served as a priestess of Apollo and took a vow of chastity swearing to remain a virgin for life.  In some versions of her story Apollo seeking to win her love gave her the power of prophecy on the condition that she bestowed her favors upon him.  However, after receiving the gift she went back on her word. With the gift of a divine power already given Apollo could not take it away so he added a curse to it. Although she would predict the future accurately her predictions would never be believed. In some later versions she receives her prophecies from a snake that whispered to her as she slept in the temple. 

The Gift of Prophecy

The gift of prophecy should have brought her great esteem and reverence among her people but the curse of Apollo turned it into a terrible blight on her life.  Although her predictions were always correct no one would believe her.  She was forced to watch her predictions unfold unable to do anything to alleviate their consequences until it was too late.  Her family and the Trojan people regarded her as a madwoman and a liar.  She was locked up on the orders of her father and her wardress was ordered to report all of her prophecies to him.

Cassandra by Evelyn De Morgan [Public domain]

Helenus

Cassandra had a twin brother named Helenus whom she taught how to foretell the future.  His prophecies were just as accurate as his sister’s but where her’s were disbelieved his were generally believed. She had predicted the death of her mother and had foreseen that the abduction of Helen by Paris would lead to the Trojan War warning him not to go to Sparta.  When Paris returned with Helen, Cassandra attacked her tearing away Helen’s golden veil and tearing at her hair because she knew her arrival in Troy heralded the ultimate destruction of the city.

Cassandra’s Prophecies

Cassandra had correctly prophesied the fall of Troy warning of the Trojan Horse concealing Greek soldiers. She also correctly foretold of the ten year journey and the return  of Odysseus. She predicted how her cousin Aeaneas would escape the destruction of Troy and is descendants  Romulus and Remus would found Rome. 

After the Greeks had captured the city she was taken by Agamemnon as one of the spoils of war.  Despite being consistently accurate with her predictions she continued to be disregarded and ignored to the cost of others and herself. She  forewarned him of a plot by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover, Aegisthus, to both kill him and her but he ignored her and both were murdered.  

The Love of Coroebus

Coroebus, the son of King Mygdon of Phrygia fought on the side of the Trojans because he was in love with Cassandra. During the Sack of Troy he persuaded some of the Trojan defenders such as Aeneas to disguise themselves by wearing the enemy armour.  He tried to defend Cassandra from rape by Ajax the Lesser but was killed in her defence.

Othryoneus

Another suitor mentioned in the Illiad, by Homer was Othryoneus from Cabesos.  He took part in the war on the side of the Trojans solely with the purpose of marriage to Cassandra which her father, King Priam had agreed to.  However, he was killed by Idomeneus in the Battle of Ships who cruelly mocked him as he lay dying.

Cassandra in Greek Drama

There are several versions of the story of Cassandra in Greek drama.  Quintus Smyrnaeus in The Fall of Troy, tells how Cassandra desperately tried to warn the Trojans of the danger presented by the Trojan Horse during a victory feast over the Greeks.  The Trojans refused to believe her. In desperation she grabbed a burning torch and an axe and ran towards the wooden horse intent on destroying it and the Greeks hidden inside. The disbelieving Trojans stopped her sealing their own fate.  The Greeks inside the wooden horse could see and hear what was happening but would have been helpless should the horse have been torched. They were greatly relieved she failed but alarmed she had so quickly and easily realized their plan.

Carlo Raso from Naples, Italy [Public domain]

Nevertheless, when the time was right the Greeks put their plan into action and caught the Trojans by surprise.  As they took control of the city Cassandra sought sanctuary in the temple of Athena but was followed by Ajax the Lesser.  Coroebus tried to defend her but was killed and although she embraced the feet of the statue of Athena begging her protection Ajax dragged her from it and raped her.  According to some accounts despite the goddess Athena’s support for the Greeks she found this act by Ajax abhorrent and the cheeks of the statue flushed red in anger.  Tears fell from her eyes which she averted so that she would not see the violation and made a sound that caused the floor to tremble and shake. The goddess was enraged and demanded the Greeks punish Ajax.

Despite Odysseus calling for him to be stoned to death the Greeks would not carry it out because Ajax clung to the feet of Athena.  However Athena was furious at the Greeks for not bringing Ajax to justice and sought the help of Poseidon and Zeus. As the victorious Greeks sailed home from Troy Poseidon sent storms and strong winds which sank much of the fleet and Athena herself killed Ajax.

The Cursed Chest

According to some sources Cassandra had left a cursed chest in Troy intended for the first Greek who should open it.  The chest contained an image of Dionysus which had been created by Hephaestus and given to the Trojans by Zeus. The chest was given to Eurypylus, a Greek war lord as part of his reward for helping fight the Trojans.  When he opened it he saw the image and was instantly struck by madness

The Cassandra Syndrome

It was said that when she died her soul went into to the Elysian Fields the resting place of good and worthy souls.  She also became a figure of epic tradition and tragedy. The Cassandra Syndrome is a term named after her because it applies to predictions of doom by some oracle or prophet that are disbelieved and rejected when made but later prove to be true.  It is a form of psychological denial blocking out bad, unwelcome news or inevitable outcomes. This leaves the seer in the dilemma of knowing that something good or bad will happen but powerless to influence the outcome because no one will act upon their prediction to change or minimise the impact of the prediction.

© 15/01/2020 zteve t evans

References, Attributions and Further Reading

Copyright December 15th, 2020 zteve t evans

The Outlaws of Inglewood Forest and the Hidden Feminine Influence

Source

This article was first published on #FolkloreThursday.com on September 26, 2019, under the title British Legends: The Outlaws of Inglewood and the feminine Influence, by zteve t evans

Adam, Clym and Wyllyam

The story of William of Cloudesly is found in a 16th century ballad, Adam Bell, Clym of the Cloughe and Wyllyam of Cloudeslee, but may be older. It was included in the influential 19th century collection, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads, as ballad 116, by Francis James Child. Although it is a male dominated, rip-roaring, all action story, three women play a significant part, emerging at points to influence events. Presented here is a short retelling followed by a brief discussion on the influence of the three females on the story.

Outlaws of Inglewood Forest

After falling foul of the authorities for poaching deer, William of Cloudesly, Adam Bell and Clym of Clough ranged Inglewood Forest as outlaws. William had a wife and three children and began to miss them badly. They lived in Carlisle and he knew it would be dangerous to visit them, but told his friends that he had to take the chance. They were aghast, and tried to dissuade him, but he would not listen, and, promising to be careful, set off for Carlisle.

William and Alice

As night fell, William made his way to the family home and tapped quietly on the door. His wife, Alice, let him in, and William joyfully embraced her and his children. It was a very happy family that evening — but there was one in the home who was not family, yet  terribly interested to see William’s return. Before William was outlawed, purely from the goodness of his heart, he had taken an old woman into his home, giving her food and a bed for free. Seeing he was back, she crept out and reported his presence to both the Magistrate and Sheriff of Carlisle, who rewarded her with a scarlet dress.

Capture

The Sheriff enlisted a gang of men and besieged William’s home. William, with stout support from Alice, defended the house, keeping the attackers at bay.  The Sheriff ordered the place to be set on fire, forcing the man to lower his children through the upstairs windows to safety using knotted sheets. Alice at first refused to go, wanting to die at his side, until William pointed out the children would have no one to take care of them, so she reluctantly agreed.

Once alone, William put up a fierce resistance, shooting many of the attackers with arrows. Eventually, the smoke and flames forced him to jump through the window into the crowd below, where he was overpowered. Taking no chances, the Sheriff ordered that all the city gates be locked to deter any possible escape, and instructed carpenters to build a gallows.

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Ghostlore: The Phantom of the Fell

Public Domain

Presented below is a retelling of a Lancashire folktale from Goblin Tales of Lancashire by James Bowker, where it was called The Phantom of the Fell.

The High Fell at Night

The High Fell is an impressive sight in daylight but at night when the moon is full it takes on a glory of its own.  One evening in the middle of June a local man named Giles Wheeler had been celebrating the wedding of a distant relative. During those celebrations he had felt within him a longing for the company of his own dear sweetheart the rosy-faced, warm-hearted Lisa, who was the miller’s only daughter.  It was a long road home and in daylight the quickest way was through the ravine that split the Fell in two but that was something few local people did after dark. It had long been rumoured that something evil lurked in the ravine and walked the Fell at night. Even in daylight people walked a considerable distance out of their way to avoid passing near the darksome place.

Giles was not overly superstitious and being a vigorous man in the prime of life had little fear of the Fell at night or the supposed fiend that haunted it though normally by habit  he would have played safe and avoided it because of its darkness and danger from the cliffs and ridges. However, this night the moon lit the hillside gloriously and he judged he had sufficient light to pass through safely.  Had he not been in such a hurry he might have noticed that as well as being gloriously moonlit, it was a calm and peaceful night. The only sound was the gently whispering of the breeze through the bracken.

Giles took no notice of such trivialities as moonlight and the breeze through the bracken he had his mind full of the delights of Lisa.   Maybe another night, with less pressing concerns on his mind Giles would have avoided the ravine on High Fell despite it being a substantial short cut to the old mill and the miller’s cuddly daughter.

The Ravine

On this night he was in a hurry and putting aside all of the terrifying stories he had heard he stepped into the darkness of the ravine leaving the moonlight behind.  His desire for Lisa was strong but as he walked along in the moonlight he kept thinking back to those tales. Each shadow that loomed before him and each rustle behind him made him start and his heart jump.  His skin grew cold and prickled and his fear rose. He told himself not to be foolish, that the shadows were nought but shadows and the rustling behind him was nought but the breeze in the bracken. Entering into the ravine he was surprised to find it was very misty and he pulled his coat around him feeling chilled to the bone despite it being a warm midsummer night. He felt it before he heard it.  The scream penetrated his brain.  He froze in fear. It cut right through him.  Possessed him! 

Forcing himself on the deathly wail broke the night again as he reached a curve in the ravine.  The terrible wail was not intended to terrify rather to express melancholy, sadness and woe. As it washed over him he knew the maker of such a sound could not be from this world.  Startled, he looked in its direction and in the moonlight saw the shape of a woman against the moon standing upon a cliff.  Her face was pale with a fragile beauty, her long black hair had a strange lustre, her dark eyes a melancholy, pleading, allure that sought him out and looked deep into his soul and then she was gone.

She appeared a little way before him and he stood spellbound worshiping her beauty.  All fear was replaced by a delirious desire to speak – to speak and to be spoken to – by this most beautiful woman who appeared to be in such anguish.  As her lips moved his heart beat faster expecting her to speak to him.

To his shock and disappointment instead of speaking words she uttered another long, low, lamenting wail and held out her arms invitingly to him.  Now, he hurried forward eager to greet her. She turned slowly gliding on a few paces before turning and beckoning – inviting him to follow. She floated further along the ravine where the moonlight was at its brightest beckoning and appealing to him with those dark eyes and he hurried after her.  She turned and holding her arms out towards him, her eyes pleading, inviting, her arms welcoming. As he reached out to touch and take her, she vanished and he grasped at nothing.  Bewildered and deeply disappointed he ran around anxiously trying to find her again. Frantically, he looked around, but there was no sight of her to be seen. He retraced his steps through the ravine but even in the bright moonlight could find no trace of her.  Fearful of losing her he crisscrossed the ravine desperately seeking her and roamed around High Fell until dawn.  Finally, instead of continuing his journey to his sweetheart Lisa he went back to his own family home.

Home

Unwilling to tell his parents of his experience on the High Fell during the night he told them that he had not left the wedding celebrations until midnight. Having drunk too much ale he had become lost on the way home. This appeared to satisfy them though it was remarked that after such festivities it was a wonder he had found his way home at all! 

Throughout the day his mother and father became aware their son was unusually quiet and reflective and nothing like his usual cheerful and energetic self.  His father put it down to the ale the night before, while his mother thought perhaps the wedding was making him reflect on his own marital status and hoped for one for her son soon.

When Giles suddenly stood up and announced he was going out for a few hours, giving no hint of where he was going, his mother nodded and looked knowingly upon her son as he walked purposefully through the door into the falling twilight.  In fact, it was not in the direction of the old mill that Giles turned when he left the house but the opposite direction he stepped with his eyes fixed upon High Fell. He deliberately took his time loitering here and there with the deliberate intention of entering the ravine that evening after the gloaming by the light of the moon.

He walked unwarily with no intent at concealment knowing on the path he traveled at that time of the evening he would be unlikely to meet anyone.  All he cared about was meeting the beautiful woman – phantom – or spirit, that he had met the night before on the Fell. Taking a seat on a boulder outside the ravine he sat down to wait for the moon to rise hoping she would appear once again to him.

Woman or ghoul he did not care he had to see her and he waited.  He waited and watched as the night began to unfold around him feeling her presence, knowing she was near as the mist appeared and thickened around him. Once again he felt it before he heard it a strange lamenting wail cutting through his mind.  He knew there were words in that long moaning scream but could not make them out. 

Return to the Ravine

He entered the ravine as the moon rose in full glory and walked slowly down the path between the crags.  Again he felt her presence, but stronger than before, then the low, long mournful wail crept through the night he looked towards the sound and saw her standing in the moonlight high upon a crag her outstretched arms beckoning to him.

In growing desire and anticipation he moved towards her as she floated down from the crag to stand a short way down the path before him.  He caught a glimpse of those mysteriously dark eyes – appealing – pleading. She beckoned to him, turned and glided further down the path toward the heart of the dark clough.  He had no other choice than to follow as she drew him deeper into the jagged maw of the ravine and turned to face him her dark eyes shining in the moonlight her black hair flowing in the breeze.  There she stood, white dress shimmering in the moonlight her arms outstretched beckoning, her eyes pleading – inviting. Giles stumbled on reaching out for her but as he looked into the depths of her pleading eyes, she uttered a low mournful cry and as he reached to hold her she dissolved before him.

Aghast, Giles ran up and down trying to find her but she was gone.  All that was left was that low mournful sound that echoed in his mind.  He spent the night searching the ravine and the Fell but all in vain. As the sun rose he made his way back to the farm of his parents feeling mournful at her loss, bewitched and musing upon how he could find her again.

Over the following days the urge to gaze upon that beautiful face and to lose himself  in those pleading eyes consumed him. He took to sitting around and refused to eat. In the evenings he would leave his parents farm to ramble alone on the High Fell in the hope of once again seeing that mysteriously beautiful stranger.  

Lisa

June passed into July and his mother, father and Lisa could not help noticing the change in his behaviour. Worse still, the continual refusal to explain himself and his nocturnal ramblings caused them great worry and they speculated wildly upon what it was that was troubling him.

July passed into August and the miller, Lisa’s father, to her upset took a less than charitable view suggesting Giles nocturnal rambles were in fact visits to a nearby town and that he had fallen into evil ways. Despite her father’s dark opinion of Giles, the ever faithful Lisa went to her fiance’s house to meet and talk with him in the hope of winning back his devoted attention.

Giles listened to her earnest and heartfelt pleadings full of shame but would not, indeed, could not, give her assurances that he would change his ways.  She argued with logic, she reasoned, she begged she pleaded and used all her womanly wiles, but Giles refused to promise to change his ways.

Lisa was left thinking that her father was right and bitterly accused him of being dishonest and unfaithful to her and left for home in tears.  Halfway home she stopped and thought about running back to him, throwing herself upon him and begging him to tell her the truth. She would forgive any indiscretions but insist his behaviour must stop.  Something inside her stopped her, perhaps pride, perhaps anger but she didn’t. Instead, she went back home to her father at the mill. As for Giles, he was deeply upset and desperately ashamed and sorry for his behaviour but he knew he could not stop and refused to tell further lies. Nevertheless, he realised he was steadily falling completely under the power of the mysterious woman and tried to resist. 

August passed into September and then into October and all those long days and nights his mind was assailed by the vision of the woman of the Fell and he heard her long lonely moan day and night.

The Mad Man on the Fell

One night towards the end of November he made his way up to the High Fell to the ravine and began searching for the mysterious woman in white.  He walked up and down and round and round in circles, becoming increasingly frantic as the night progressed without her appearance. Again and again he spoke out loud appealing to her to present herself to him, but to no avail.

Occasionally, as on this night poachers visited the High Fell in the hope of finding game.   This night two of the miller’s men were out poaching and on hearing a voice quickly concealed themselves so as not to be discovered in their illicit activity.  They were both intrigued and shocked at what they witnessed that night. 

In their place of concealment they saw Giles appear out of the ravine frantically babbling as if he was talking or appealing to an invisible being.  He ran straight towards them appearing half-crazed shouting and babbling in agitation. They could not quite make out what he was saying but as he drew nearer they realized he appeared to be appealing and begging to some invisible being to show themselves to him. 

The two poachers remained hidden, first not wanting to reveal themselves in their illegal activity, but also, quite simply, they were scared at what they saw and agreed together to say nothing to anyone of what they had seen of the madman on the Fell.  When Giles ran the opposite way to where they were they took their opportunity and ran as quickly as they could back home.

Fever

At dawn Giles somehow made his way down the hillside and back home.  To the worry of his parents he was in a state of high fever and delirium ranting and calling out to some invisible presence only he could see. He raved about a beautiful, mysterious face and someone with dark, pleading eyes. 

This confirmed to his parents their worst fears. Sorrowfully they tended to his needs as he lay raving in bed.  This terrible affliction continued for several weeks and in that time, especially at night, Giles would try to leave the safety of his family home to go wandering in the dark.  His parents steadfastly thwarted this ambition but still he called out to someone they could not see or hear, sometimes whispering, “She of the dark, dark eyes is calling,” while his broken-hearted parents wept by his bedside.

It was bad enough for his devoted parents to see the physical deterioration in his body along with his mental state.  It was made worse for them by learning from his ravings of a beautiful woman with “dark, dark eyes” that he appeared to have been meeting up on the High Fell.  Nevertheless, he was still their son and although they loved him dearly they could not help but to think he had fallen into sin and shame as they listened to his wild and impassioned ravings.

The Feeroin

They lived on the edge of a tight knit community and it was not long before people began to talk and word reached the ears of Lisa.  She carried herself through these troubled times staunchly, believing she was now seen as an object of pity.

It so happened that the two of the miller’s men who had been up on the fell poaching went to their employer telling him of what they had seen that night. They told him they believed Giles was under the spell of the feeorin of the fell.  The miller rebuked them for poaching but sent them to speak to the worried parents of Giles of what they had seen.  For Lisa this gave her hope that her fiance had not been unfaithful as she had feared. She was sorry for ever doubting him and she went along with them.

After the two told their story of what they had seen and that they believed him to be under the spell of the feeroin of the fell his parents readily seized upon it.  To them this seemed the most sensible explanation of their son’s behaviour and rebuked themselves for not having more faith in him. Although a load was removed from their shoulders Giles still remained critically ill, but now Lisa stayed on and helped to take care of him.

Lisa and Giles

Both she and his parents now ignored his ravings and nursed him diligently and carefully.  Eventually his condition improved enough for him to sit in a chair by the fire. As the December snows began to fall he sat by the hearth in a dream-like state watching the pictures in the flickering flames.   Seeing his improvement Liza dared to dream of the day when he would return to his old self and happiness would smile upon them. She desperately wanted their wedding day to be fixed, despite all the love and attention she heaped upon him Giles treated her with a cold, but polite dispassion.   He was not being ungrateful, in fact he fully appreciated the dedication and nursing  she had lavished upon him. He always politely thanked her for each and everything but realised that Lisa sensed something was still amiss with him.  Despite this, she still she lovingly continued her service to him without question. 

Giles, no matter how he tried, could not return the love she bestowed upon him.   He was completely possessed by the dark eyes of the mysterious woman on the Fell. Knowing that the truth would devastate Lisa he kept himself to a polite silence.

On Lisa’s part she sensed the coolness towards her but restrained from remonstrating with him fearing it might reverse the good progress in his physical health he had made.  Sadly, when she was alone she wept for the change she saw in him. 

For all the love she poured upon him Giles could not return what he not  did not feel. His heart and mind was entirely possessed by the mysterious woman on the Fell.  He knew it was wrong and he was wracked with guilt at the same time. No matter how he tried he could not get the image of her out of his mind; her dark eyes, her long flowing hair, and that sad mournful cry. It was these that dominated his thoughts and his emotions while he knew poor Lisa suffered but could not in anyway alleviate that suffering.  

For him the intense longing he was feeling or the mysterious girl in the moonlight was building up. As the days moved towards Christmas and the festive season, he again began to see her dark eyes everywhere and hear her mournful lament in the wind through the trees. He tried to enter into the spirit of the season hoping it would take his mind off the mysterious woman.

Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve came and Lisa went home to her father promising to visit him in the morning.  His parents went to bed early being exhausted and feeling their age and left him to sit up alone staring into the fire.  From where he sat by the fire he could turn his head and look through the window to the High Fell and saw in his mind’s eye the woman in the moonlight beckoning and crying her long, sad cry. 

In the distance he saw the High Fell black against the sky and he knew she was calling to him.  He longed more than anything in the world to take her in his arms and look into those dark eyes though he feared what he knew he would see. 

Fortunately there had always been someone nearby, either one or other of his parents or the faithful Lisa, who had prevented him from venturing out.  Tonight on Christmas Eve he found himself alone and looking through the window at the falling snow and glancing towards the High Fell he swore he saw her.   And then she came to him ….

The Phantom of the Fell

He heard her call and through the window he saw her.  Those dark, dark eyes pleading and her outstretched arms beckoning him into her loving embrace. With no one to stop him he left the fireside and put on his coat and ventured outside into the snow.  Slowly and weakly but with steely resolve he made his way through the biting wind and thick snow to the haunted ravine.

When his parents awoke Christmas morning they let their son lay in while they prepared the festivities. When Lisa arrived bearing him a special Christmas gift his mother called into his room to see where he was and his absence was discovered.  She called her husband who wasted no time in seeking help from his neighbours and they followed his tracks in the snow. They reached the High Fell and found it shrouded in a thick mist which frigid pink sun shone through turning the ravine into a  phantasmagoria of ghastly jagged teeth. In the weird light they followed his footprints up to the ravine and pausing looked at one another in hushed silence and then and then entered the dread place.

From the tracks Giles had made they guessed he had become frantic with steps leading back and forth and hither and thither.  His father, who was leading the party, suddenly stopped holding up his hand. The tracks ended abruptly at the edge of a cliff he had almost stepped over.  After a short discussion it was decided to follow the course of the path which would twist round and pass below the cliff. With growing dread they followed the path to place below the cliff where the grief of his father father and the horror of all present they found his broken body on the path his face frozen in a wild death mask.

© 23/12/2019 zteve t evans

References, Attributions and Further Reading

Copyright zteve t evans December 23rd, 2019

Welcome the Returning Sun: Winter Solstice Celebrations Around the World

This article was first published on #FolkloreThursday.com on 19th December 2019, titled, Top 5 Winter Solstice Celebrations Around the World ,by zteve t evans

Hafsteinn Robertsson from Hafnarfjordur, Iceland [CC BY 2.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)]

Winter Solstice

The winter solstice has been celebrated in some form all around the world for centuries. Individual human cultures often mixed magic with religion in acknowledgement and celebration of this important astronomical event. The December solstice marks the beginning of astronomical winter, and the days become gradually longer and brighter. Conversely, the next three months are generally the coldest of the year because the earth and water have cooled. The returning sun gradually reheats the earth and water bringing warmer weather and more light stimulating plants to renew their leaves. Herbivorous animals depend on plants for food; carnivores depend on herbivores for food; humans eat plants, herbivores and carnivores. The renewal of plants is essential for the maintenance of the food chain that humans depend upon.

Science and the Sun

Happy Solstice! By NOAA Satellites, Public Domain

Our ancestors lacked modern scientific knowledge and technology. They knew nothing of how the warming and cooling of the oceans affects weather patterns around the world, or of photosynthesis and how plants renewed their leaves. Yet they did know many things. According to NASA, probably the foremost scientific organization:

“Nothing is more important to us on Earth than the Sun. Without the Sun’s heat and light, the Earth would be a lifeless ball of ice-coated rock. The Sun warms our seas, stirs our atmosphere, generates our weather patterns, and gives energy to the growing green plants that provide the food and oxygen for life on Earth.”

The ancients knew the importance of the Sun to the Earth, and consequently to their lives and they knew it without modern science. In the modern day, the winter solstice is a time for us to given thanks to our ancestors, and to the Sun and the Earth for sustaining us.

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