King Lludd appears in the Mabinogion in the story of Lludd and Llevelys as King of Britain. This is a tale that tells how with the help of Llevelys, his younger brother, he overcome the Three Plagues of Britain that had caused his people great anxiety and fear. It is thought that Geoffrey of Monmouth in the History of the Kings of Britain refers to him as Lud and it may be the case that the Mabinogion tale owes much to Geoffrey.
After the death of his father Beli the Great, as his eldest son, Lludd became King of the Island of Britain. Lludd was a great and generous king and a mighty warrior and leader of men. He was generous in giving food and hospitality to any who sought it from him and cared for the welfare of his lords and subjects. During the reign of Lludd the island of Britain prospered greatly. Lludd rebuilt the city of London that Brutus the Trojan, the legendary first King of Britain was said to have founded. He surrounded it with strong walls with many towers to defend its citizens and called upon his subjects to built fine houses within those walls and London became the finest and richest city on the island of Britain.
According to the Mabinogion, Lludd had three brothers and the youngest named Llevelys was his favourite. He was extremely fond of Llevelys who grew up to be a very wise and discreet man whom he could always trust. It so happened that when the King of France passed away and having no male heirs to the throne he had left his kingdom to his daughter. Llevelys sought her hand in marriage and after a successful courtship married her and became the ruler of France. He was to prove to be a good and just ruler who governed with great wisdom for many years and had a long and happy life.
The Three Plagues of Britain
The island of Britain ruled by Lludd continued to prosper as did France ruled by Llevelys. There came a time in Britain when the situation changed for the worse and the people grew fearful and troubled. Three plagues had descended upon the island of Britain that caused the people great distress and anxiety. The first of these plagues was a people called the Coranians, the second was an unearthly Shriek heard throughout the land and the third was the theft of Royal provisions.
The Coranians were said to be a race of dwarves who had the power to hear anything and everything the wind touched. No word could be spoken anywhere without them instantly hearing it. They could hear every word that was uttered upon the island of Britain and so could never be attacked unprepared. In some texts they were said to have settled near the Humber and allies themselves with the enemies of Britain.
The second plague came every year on the eve of May Day when without fail the most unearthly and terrifying shriek was heard throughout the land. It was such an awful and terrifying sound that it would pierce the hearts of the people causing such terror that grown men turned pale and maidens lost their reason and cause animals, trees and the very earth to become barren.
Theft of Provisions
The third plague was baffling and annoying. However much of the King’s food and drink was prepared in the Royal courts from morning to nightfall the next morning it would be discovered to have vanished overnight without a trace.
Lludd Seeks Counsel
Of these three plagues Lludd had more hope of being cured of the first than the other two because he knew the cause of the first, whereas with the other two the cause was a mystery. Lludd called together the princes, the nobles and his wise men of his realm to discuss and set out a course of action. After much debating and arguing they had to admit they were all baffled not knowing the cause so not knowing a remedy. In the end it was decided by all that Lludd should travel to the court of his youngest brother Llevelys to ask his advice and most being the wisest person and most trustworthy they knew. All further preparations for the voyage were done in silence in case the Coranians heard of the venture. So it was that in silence and secrecy a fleet of ships embarked from the island of Britain bound for France to seek out the counsel of Llevelys.
When tidings of the fleet reached Llevelys he was puzzled at the meaning of the ships not knowing his brother’s reason for them. Llevelys then assembled his own fleet and sailed to meet him. When Lludd saw his brother’s fleet he immediately ordered all ships save the one that bore him to hold back while he sailed to meet his brother. On seeing this Llevelys immediately did the same and the two brothers met together and embraced in love, friendship and joy at their reunion.
Defeating the Coranians
After Lludd had explained the cause of his visit Llevelys said that it was good that he had come and that he could help and advised they go below ship out of the wind lest the Coranians should get word of their meeting. Llevelys ordered the making of a long brass tube that they could use to talk through to one another without fear of the Coranians hearing. This was done but when they spoke to each other through the tube the only words the hearer could hear from the speaker were all words of anger and hostility. Llevelys realised that the horn was possessed by a demon of some kind that was deliberately twisting their words into anger. He washed it through with wine which because of the goodness of the wine the demon to flee.
When at last Llevelys and Lludd could talk freely and naturally to each other Llevelys told his brother that he would provide him with insects and teach him how to crush these in water to create a mixture that would rid him of the Coranians. He would also teach him how to breed them should the Coralians ever return. He instructed Lludd that he would need to throw the specially prepared mixture over the Coranians and they would be destroyed but not harm any of the people of Britain that the mixture might fall upon.
The Two Dragons
Then Llevelys turned his attention to the second plague and said,
“The second plague is caused by a dragon within your realm that is fighting a foreign dragon in a life or death battle. The dragon of your realm is making the fearful shriek and here is what you must do.
When you return home you must have the length and breadth of the island of Britain measured from this you must work out the exact center of the island. There in the very heart of the island you must have a deep pit dug and place a cauldron filled with the best mead in the land to be placed in the bottom of the pit. Then, cover the cauldron with a sheet of satin and there you, yourself must remain to watch for the warring beasts which will appear in the form of two terrible animals. These will fight each other but eventually they will rise into the air and take the form of two dragons. These will continue to fight furiously in the air until they grow tired and will transform into pigs and drop out of the air into the cauldron onto the satin covering and fall through sinking to the bottom of the cauldron and drink up the mead. This will cause them to fall asleep and as soon as they are asleep wrap the around in the sheet and then place them in a stone kistvaen and transport them to the strongest place of your kingdom and bury them. While they remain buried in that place no plague shall again trouble Britain.” (1)
Mighty Man of Magic
Llevelys then told his brother that the cause of the third plague was a mighty man of magic who was using his magical arts to send everyone to sleep while he stole the food from Lludd’s court. To prevent this Llevelys advised that it would be necessary for Lludd himself to stay awake to guard the store and confront the thief. He told him to ensure he stays awake he should keep a cauldron of cold water at his side to splash over his face should he begin to drowse.
Lludd Frees Britain of the Plagues
Thanking his brother Lludd returned to Britain where he summoned the whole of his people along with the Coranians to a great meeting. He had previously crushed and prepared the insect mixture as his brother had taught him and when all were assembled he threw the concoction over the Coranians killing them but leaving the Britons unharmed. In this way through the advice of Llevelys the Coranians were defeated and the plague ended.
After this Lludd had his servants measure the length and breadth of Britain to determine the center of the realm and decided this was at a place now known as Oxford. In that place Lludd had a pit dug and placed a cauldron of mead at its base. He then covered it with a sheet of satin as his brother had advised. On the eve of May Day he set himself to watch what events should unfold.
That night he witnessed the appearance of the two warring beasts who immediately set about fighting each other just as his brother had foretold. He saw how they rose into the air and transformed into great fighting dragons. He watched as they battled each other and eventually overcome with exhaustion fell from the air into the cauldron of mead which they then drank and fell into a deep slumber. Seizing his chance Lludd wrapped them in the satin sheet and placed them into a stone container and transported them to Dinas Emrys, which was the strongest part of his kingdom at the time. This action ended the fearful shrieking that had plagued and terrified the entire island of Britain.
After this, Lludd resolved to deal with the mighty man of magic who had been plundering his stores. He ordered a great banquet to be prepared and setting himself on watch with a vessel of cold water beside him he awaited the arrival of the thief. In the dead hours after midnight he heard many wonderful songs and many curious things and found himself sinking into a dreamy slumber. Rousing himself he splashed his face with old water from the cauldron. He found he needed to do this often battling to stay awake.
As he fought against the slumber he became aware of the appearance of a huge man clad in the armour of a warrior and armed with a sword. The giant proceed to gather all the food and drink and place it in a huge hamper. Lludd sat still and watched for a while in wonderment and was further amazed that the hamper never overflowed with all that was being placed inside. At last he decided enough was enough and jumping up and cried, “Stop! stop! You have insulted me enough! Stop now or face my sword!
With a mighty roar the giant threw down the hamper and rushed at Lludd with his drawing his sword. Lludd rushed to meet him and they fell together in deadly combat. Fire flew from their swords and after a hard fight fortune gave the victory to Lludd. As he threw down his foe to the ground and had him at the mercy of his sword he asked, “Should I spare thee for all the wrongs you have done me?”
“Spare me and all that I have taken shall be returned in equal amount and from this day on I will be your faithful servant,” replied the giant. Lludd quickly reflected upon this and accepted and the Mighty Man of Magic served him faithfully and fully as he had promised.
The Two Dragons Reappear
So it was that Lludd rid Britain of the three plagues and from that day on his realm bloomed and prospered in peace and security and so the story of Lludd and Llevelys ended. However, part of the story was to reappear many centuries later in the time of King Vortigern when the two dragons resurfaced to hinder the construction of a fortress Vortigern was building. This event was to see the emergence of a young Merlin who prophesied the coming of Arthur who would unite Britain under his banner and become King of Britain and drive out the Anglo-Saxon invaders at least for a time.
© 12/07/2017 zteve t evans
References, Attributions and Further Information
Copyright zteve t evans July 12th, 2017
- (1) The Mabinogion, tr. by Lady Charlotte Guest, , at sacred-texts.com
- The Mabinogion, by Lady Charlotte Guest
- Lludd and Llefelys – Wikipedia
- Lludd Llaw Eraint – Wikipedia
- The Below images are from – The Mabinogion Vol. 3 (of 3), by Owen M. Edwards
- Cropped image of Two Dragons from History of the Kings of Britain by Geoffrey of Monmouth – Public Domain
- Levely flushes out the Demon – Public Domain
- The Two Warring Dragons – Public Domain
- Mighty Man of Magic Stealing the King;s Provisions – Public Domain
- Lludd Fights the Mighty Man of Magic – Public Domain